Abstract & PDF links for MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

HOME PAGE Web Site Contents Mars Report Contents Mars Report Abstract CV for Dr. David Roffman Diplomas PhD Thesis PhD Thesis Powerpoint Mars PowerPoint MSL Weather Reports Seasonal Pressure Altitude Calculations MSL Year 4 Spring Weather MSL Yr 3-4 Winter Weather MSL Fall Yr 3 Weather MSL Yr. 3 Summer Weather MSL Yr. 3 Spring Weather Martian plume March 25 2017 MSL Ultraviolet 3 YEARS OF MSL UV Desai, EDL, Parachutes & ExoMars Mars winter vs. summer temps Helo to Mars Sea at Utopia Planitia, Mars Tree Stump at MSL? Spherical life on Mars? Mars Report Abstract, 1-1.2 Mars Report Sec.2-2.1 Report 2.2-2.4 Report 2.5-2.5.2 Report 2.5.3-2.7 Report 3-4 Report 4.1-4.1.2 Report 5 to 6 Report  7-7.2.1 Report 8 Report 9 Report 10 Report 11 Global Dust Storm Report 12 Report  13-13.2 Report 13.3-13.5 Report 13.6 Report 14-15 Report 15.1 Report 15.2-15.3 Report 15.4-15.6.2 Report 15.6.2.1 - 15.6.2.3 Report 15.6.2.4-15.7 Report 16-16.1 Report 17-20 Report References Report Afterword Rebuttal of REMS Report Running water on Mars MSL Year 0 Weather MSL Yr 2 Winter-Spring Weather MSL Yr 2 Summer Weather MSL Yr 2 Fall Weather MSL Yr 2-3 Winter Weather Adiabatics MSL Hi Temps MSL Low Temps Organic Chem found by MSL Oxygen in Mars Air MSL Day length & Temp Warm winter ground temps 155-Mile High Mars Plume Radiation Diurnal Air Temp Variation Mars Temps Fahrenheit Beagle found JPL/NASA Pressure Mistakes Enter MarsCorrect Sol 370, 1160 & 1161 Histories Mars-Radio-Show JPL Fudges Pressure Curves MSL Temp. ∆ Mast to Ground High & Low Pressures Normalized Mars soil 2% water Moving rock Mars MAVEN MSL Relative Humidity Claim Ashima Concedes Original MSL Weather Record Old MSL Weather Record MSL Summer Weather Pressure Estimate REMS Wind MSL Pressures REMS Reports Curiosity Geology CERN-2013-pics Daylight Math MSL Errors P1 MSL Errors P2 MSL-Chute-Flap MSL daylight Ashima Sols 15 to 111 Ashima Sol 112 to 226 Ashima Sol 227 on New Ashima Sols 270+ MSL Summer to Sol 316 Updated Secrets of Mars Weather Forecast Wind Booms MSL Credibility MSL Temp. Swings MSL Temperatures Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) VL2 - MSL Ls Comparson Ashima MIT Mars GCM Dust Storm Nonsense Mars Slideshow Moving Sand & Martian Wind 3 DEC12 Press Conf. MSL Press Conf. 15NOV2012 Sol Numbering MSL Pressure Graph to Ls 218.8 MSL Sky Color Mars Sky Color DATA DEBATE! Zubrin's Letter Phoenix Vaisala Vaisala Pressure Sensors Phoenix &MSL Flawed MSL REMS Viking pressure sensors failed MSL landing site Mars Landings Phobos Grunt Martian Air Supersaturation Mars & CH4 Mars and MSL Time Viking Pressure Audit Links Mars Society 2008 Quant Finance Frontiers Home Front. Preface Frontiers Ch. 1 Frontiers Ch. 2 Antimatter Lightning Frontiers Ch. 3 Frontiers Ch. 4 Frontiers Ch. 5 Frontiers Ch. 6 Frontiers Ch. 7 Frontiers Ch. 8 Frontiers Ch. 9 Frontiers Ch 10 Frontiers Ch 11 Frontiers Ch 12 Frontiers Ch 13 Frontiers Ch 14 Frontiers Ch 15 Frontiers Ch 16 Frontiers Ch 17 Frontiers Ch 18 Frontiers Ch 19 Frontiers Ch 20 Frontiers Ch 21 Frontiers Ch 22 World Tour Spring-Break -13 Other Travels Asteroid Impact? ExoMars data Unit Issues Viking Pressures Tavis CADs Landing Long Scale Heights LS of Max/Min Pressures Tavis Report Tavis Failures Lander Altitude Martian Trees? Code Experiment Gedanken Report Mars Nuke? Martian Flares Mach Numbers MOLA (altitude) Original Mars Report Mariner 9 & Pressure Mars  Temps MSL Time MPF Pressure Blog Debates Spring Pendulum Plasma Model Reporting Errors Orbital Parameters Anderson Localization P. 1 Anderson Localization P. 2 Moving rock old Navigating Mars Mars Report Section Links Mars Report Figure Link Gillespie Lake rock outcrop MSL Sol 200 Anomaly Sol 1300&1301 Anomalies Gilbert Levin & Labeled Release Brine on Mars Ceres Lights Yr 1 Table 1 Missing data Mitchell Report Old Mars Report All MPF Temps ExoMars fails Did Spirit find past life? MSL ground temps go haywire OPACITY AT MSL Luminescence on Mars Dust Storms & Microorganisms 2018 Global Dust Storm Links to Section of the Basic Report

Updated September 14, 2018

Our Report is updated many times each year. The latest version is at the following link:

SEPTEMBER 14, 2018: BASIC REPORT for MARS CORRECT – CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA

ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 9-year study critiques 2,165 Sols (6+ terrestrial years, 3.23 Martian years, and a full Global Dust Storm at MSL) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the previously accepted small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking 1 and 2 (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar - altered to 14 mbar in 2017). For MSL there were several pressures published from August 30 to September 5, 2012 that were from 737 mbar to 747 mbar – two orders of magnitude high – only to be retracted. We challenged many pressures and NASA revised them down, however 9 years into this audit it has come to our attention that of two pressure sensors ordered by NASA for Mars Pathfinder, one of them (Tavis Dash No. 1) could in fact measure up to 1,034 mbar. Further, for the MSL according to an Abstract to the American Geophysical Union for the Fall 2012 meeting, The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) states of their MSL (and Phoenix) Vaisala transducers, “The pressure device measurement range is 0 – 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C – 55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 – 12 hPa..” So while we originally thought that of the five landers on Mars that had meteorological suites, none of them could measure Earth-like pressures, in fact, if the higher pressure sensor Pathfinder Tavis Dash 1 (0-15 PSIA/1,034 mbar) was sent rather than Tavis Dash 2 (0-0.174 PSIA/12 mbar), three landers were actually equipped to get the job done, but the public was largely kept in the dark about it. All 19 low uv values were removed when we asked about them, although they eventually restored 12 of them. REMS always-sunny opacity reports were contradicted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter photos. Why REMS Team data was so wrong is a matter of speculation, but we clearly demonstrate that their weather data was regularly revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our website at http://davidaroffman.com. REMS even labelled all dust storm weather as sunny, although they did list the uv values as all low. This rendition of the Basic Report begins at MSL Sol 2129. The last weather report was for Sol 2108. There is a possibility that the dust storm will knock out the pressure sensor (assuming that it was really functioning before the storm).

Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes which we link to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems included confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA Ames could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons and similar storms above Olympus Mons (over 21 km high), dust storm opacity at MER Opportunity blacking out the sun, snow that descends 1 to 2 km in only 5 or 10 minutes, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

ANIMATED GIF BELOW: Evidence for running water at Recurring Slope Lineae on Mars. A time-lapse animation of Palikir Crater shows how the streaks extend and darken during warmer months on Mars, then gradually fade as temperatures cool. Source: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory/University of Arizona
 

JULY 16, 2018: PowerPoint version of our Basic Report is found at Mars Correct? Mars is Wet!

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR MARS CORRECT -

CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA (Updated 9/23/2018) 

ABSTRACT

1

1. INTRODUCTION

2

   1.1 Comparison of Martian and terrestrial dust devils

3

     1.1.1 Geographic Occurrences and the Greenhouse and Thermophoresis Effect

3

     1.1.2 Seasonal Occurrences and Electrical Properties

4

     1.1.3. Size and Shape

4

     1.1.4. Diurnal Formation Rate and Lifetime

4

     1.1.5 Wind Speeds

4

     1.1.6 Core Temperature Excursions

4

     1.1.7 Dust Particle Size – The Problem of Martian Dust <2 Microns and Wind Speeds

4

     1.1.8. Core Pressure Excursions

5

   1.2. NASA Ames Test of Martian Pressures and Dust Devils 

8

2. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION PROBLEMS

9

   2.1 Viking 2 and Gay-Lussac’s Law

11

   2.2 Pathfinder and Phoenix Pressure Issues

16

   2.3. Which Transducers Were Used?

19

   2.4. Issues Raised by the FMI

20

2.5. DID ANY TAVIS OR VAISALA TRANSDUCERS PEG OUT AT THEIR MAXIMUM PRESSURES?

26

    2.5.1 How extraordinary was the (temporary) 1,149 Pa pressure spike of MSL Sol 370?

27

     2.5.2. The importance of gleaning data from identification of our web site readers

27

    2.5.3 Why is it so wrong to alter data to fit an expected curve?

34

   2.6 The Dust filter on Viking

37

      2.6.1. The issue of Viking pressure reports and digitization

37

     2.6.2. The issue of daily pressure spikes at consistent time-bins.

38

2.7. MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco

43

3. CAVES ON AND SPIRAL CLOUDS ABOVE ARSIA MONS AND OLYMPUS MONS ON MARS.

46

4. THE ISSUES OF SNOW, WATER ICE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON MARS.

48

   4.1. Annual Pressure Fluctuations Recorded by Viking 1, Viking 2, and Phoenix - Maximum Pressure in the Northern Winter?

48

4.1.1. Ls of minimum pressure

49

4.1.2. Ls of maximum pressure

49

5. RADIO OCCULTATION

62

5.1 Shifting Standards – The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure.  

64

6.  SPECTROSCOPY PRESSURE READINGS BY MARS EXPRESS ORBITER.

68

7.  MARTIAN WIND PROBLEMS

69

   7.1 Anemometer/Telltale Wind Speed Issues

70

   7.2 Martian Bedforms – Too Much Movement of Sand Dunes and Ripples for 6.1 mbar

72

   7.2.1 Issues Raised by the paper on Planet-wide sand motion on Mars by Bridges et al. (2012)

72

8. DO DOWNRANGE LANDINGS MEAN THINNER OR THICKER AIR?

78

9. DUST OPACITY AND PRESSURE

83

10. EXCESSIVE DECELERATION DURING AEROBRAKING OPERATIONS

90

   10.1 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

90

   10.2 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

91

11. THE GLOBAL DUST STORM OF 2018

91

   11.1 Pressures Claimed for the 2018 Global Dust Storm

94

   11.2 Brief Summary of 2018 Dust Storm Data

104

   11.3 Possibility of a Biological Factor in Lifting Dust

104

   11.3.1 Martian Dust Storm Seasons

105

   11.4 Martian Dust Storm Paths and Radioactive Areas

105

12. MARS PATHFINDER PRESSURES

106

13. THE POTENTIAL PRESSURE ON MARS

109

   13.1 Did NASA ever publicly back 20 mbar on Mars?

109

   13.2 Biology, Methane, and a Possible Hint of the Real Martian Air Pressure

110

   13.3 Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars

115

     13.3.1 Length of daylight where RSL are found

115

     13.3.2 Latitudes, times and temperatures for evidence of running water

117

     13.3.3 The role of perchlorates in RSL

118

    13.4 Other Water on Mars – the Frozen Sea at Utopia Planitia

120

   13.5 The High End of Pressure Estimates for Mars….

123

   13.6. Pressure Drop as MSL Climbs Mt. Sharp vs. Scale Height Predictions.

128

14. RELATIVE HUMIDITY

137

15. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT CONCERNS

140

    15.1. Ground Temperature Problems

141

    15.2. Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2

149

    15.3. Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185

149

    15.4. MSL Air and Ground Temperature Differences.

154

    15.5. MSL Diurnal Temperature Variations

157

       15.5.1. Why does the temperature fall more degrees at MSL in summer nights than winter nights?

161

   15.6. Probable Failure of the Ground Temperature Sensor or Personnel Issues?

161

      15.6.1 Failure of the Temperature Sensor.

168

      15.6.2 Personnel Issues.

168

      15.6.3 Mixed messages about the range and sensitivity of pressure sensors sent to Mars.

170

      15.6.4. A Possible Excuse for REMS Errors.

175

    15.7 Temperature, Pressure and Albedo

176

16. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND CLOUD COVER AT MSL.

180

16.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation.

182

17. CRASH OF THE EXOMARS 2016 SCHIAPARELLI LANDER

191

      17.1 ESA gets smarter – Raises ExoMars orbit due to excessive density of Mars’s atmosphere

194

18. CONCLUSIONS

196

19. RECOMMENDATIONS

203

20. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

204

AFTERWORD: What difference could this all possibly make?

205

21. REFERENCES

211

       ANNEXES AND APPENDICES TO MARS CORRECT - CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA: 

SECTION

TOPIC

PAGE

Annex Abstract

Overview of data in the Annexes

A-1

ANNEX A

VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock.

A-2 to

A-59

ANNEX A Appendix 1

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

A-3 to A-22

Appendix 2

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.

A-23 to

A-34

Appendix 3

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

A-35 to A-38

Appendix 4

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

A-39 to    A-50

Appendix 5

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

A-51 to    A-55

Appendix 6

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

A-56 to    A-59

ANNEX B

VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES

B-1 to B-39

Appendix 1

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

B-2 to B-5

Appendix 2

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

B-6 to B-10

Appendix 3

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

B-11 to     B-20

 

Appendix 4

 

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

B-21 to     B-26

Appendix 5

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.

B-27 to     B-30

Appendix 6

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

B-31 to     B-39

ANNEX C

VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGE

C-1 to C-54

ANNEX D

PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS

D-1 to D-171

Appendix 1

Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199

D-3 to D-94

Appendix 2

Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350

D-95 to    D-171

ANNEX E

Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34

E-1 to E-14

ANNEX F

Percent Difference Experimental Summary

F-1 to F-18

Appendix 1

Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350

F-5 to F-16

Appendix 2

Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins

F-17 to     F-18

ANNEX G

Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results

G-1 to G-13

 

ANNEX H

Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experiment

H-1 to H-43

ANNEX I

Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).

I-1 to I-28

Appendix 1

Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports

I-12 to I-28

ANNEX J

Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSL

J- 1to J-19

ANNEX K

REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.

K-1 to K-34

ANNEX L

How Martian Day Length Varies with Ls and Latitude

L-1 to L-10

ANNEX M

One Year of MSL Weather Reports

M-1 to M-38

 

ANNEX N

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864

N-1 to N-13

ANNEX O

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0 (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020

O-1 to O-11

ANNEX P

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90 (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213

P-1 to P-15

ANNEX Q

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 to 3 Winter, Ls 90 to Ls 180 (Sols 1,213 to 1,392)

Q-1 to Q-18

ANNEX R

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Spring, Ls 180 to Ls 270 (Sols 1,392 to 1,534

R-1 to R-37

ANNEX S

Source: Document: Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatures.

S-1 to S41

ANNEX T

Source Document: Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatures.

T-1 to T-64

ANNEX U

Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2

U-1 to U-28

ANNEX V

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Summer, Ls 270 to Ls 0 (Sols 1,534 to 1,686.

V-1 to V-28

ANNEX W

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Fall, Ls 0 to 90 (Sols 1,687 to 1,881

W -1 to W-24

ANNEX X

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3-4 Winter, Ls 90 to 180 (Sols 1,881to 2060

X-1 to X-31

 

ABSTRACT FOR PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman (November 6, 2012 - This needs to be updated): After a cursory review of the Viking Project Data it became apparent that an extensive audit was imperative. The Viking Project Data did not seem to explain weather phenomena (spiral clouds over Arsia Mons, dust devils, etc.) clearly seen on Mars. A general discussion of the problems is offered in the Basic Report by David Roffman. The data audit results are presented in seven Annexes. The Viking Project data divides every Martian day into 25 time-bins (hours), each ~59 minutes long. Annex A (Viking 1 sols 1 to 350) and Annex B (Viking 2 sols 156 to 361) emphasize how pressures change during morning time-bins that correspond to 0630 to 0830. A simple formula, Pressure predicted = (6.51 mbar*255.77 K)/Temperature K measured, was often correct for 0730. Annex C examines how often the pressure sensor did not work (stuck or no pressures) between Viking 2 sols 639 and 799. Annex D examines the percent differences between hourly predictions and reported pressures for Viking 1 from sols 1 to 350. Annex E focuses on predictions and reported pressures for the 0.3 (0730) and .34 (0830) time-bins. Annex F maps out the best and worst prediction times each day, clearly proving the influence of the RTG heaters on hourly pressure reports. Annex G shows what went wrong in the transducer selection and testing process. These Annexes provide hard evidence that the Tavis pressure transducers used for the Vikings (and Pathfinder) likely jammed with dust during the landing process. The meaning of this is that it is doubtful that they ever measured ambient pressure conditions of Mars.  There is evidence that all subsequent attempts to measure pressure were colored by the reported Viking results. Problems with Phoenix pressures based on a Vaisala transducer are discussed in the Basic Report. Annex I discusses the the initial pressure results in from the MSL with a focus on its sols 15 to 87 (Ls 158.8 to 199.8) which occurred between August 22 and November 3, 2012.  

 

For comments or feedback, please contact DavidARoffman@GMail.Com. Links to YouTube coveage of my presentation to the Mars Society Convention in Dayton Ohio follow (unfortunately the camera was not started until slide 8 of my presentation):

 

PARTIAL YOUTUBE COVERAGE OF PART 1 OF MY PRESENTATION TO THE MARS SOCIETY ON AUGUST 5, 2010.

 

YOUTUBE COVERAGE OF PART 2 OF MY MARS SOCIETY PRESENTATION  

Powerpoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE. Part 1 by David. Roffman. Posted September 9, 2012. 

PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman.  Posted August 18 2011.

 

 


Above: 14th International Mars Society Convention in Dallas, Texas (2011). Left to right: Pat Duggins, National Public Radio of Alabama; CNN Space Correspondent John Zarrella; David Roffman, and Barry Roffman

Above: David Roffman and Dr. Zubrin At the 11th International Mars Society Convention in Boulder, Colorado in 2008.

Above: David Roffman and Dr. Robert Zubrin, President of the Mars Society at the 13th International Mars Society Convention in Dayton, Ohio on August 5, 2010.

Now I'm a University of Florida Gator. MSL data is as easy to consume as was Viking, Pathfinder and Phoenix data. The truth isn't just out there. It's on this web site. For a PowerPoint about how we eat MSL data, see the link below.