Mars Correct Report Contents - Critique of All NASA Mars Weather Data

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By David A. Roffman and Barry S. Roffman (updated 5/21/2017)

ABSTRACT FOR MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA.

We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 8-year study critiques 1,699 Sols (well over two full Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REM) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar). For MSL there was a mean pressure of 11.49 mbar measured on its Sol 370. When we made an issue of it with JPL, it was revised to 8.65 mbar. The REMS Team then published pressures of 11.77 mbar (for Sol 1,160) and 12 mbar (for Sol 1,161). Again we made an issue of it, and they revised the figures to 8.98 and 8.97 mbar respectively. When they asserted a pressure 1154Pa for Sol 1301, we challenged it and they revised it to 752 Pa. In fact we demonstrate that JPL/REMS weather data was regularly revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our websites at http://marscorrect.com and http://davidaroffman.com.

Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes. We link this to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failures are disclosed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems are highlighted with respect to confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons, dust storm opacity, snow at Phoenix, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

 

March 13, 2017 version of MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA.

                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS                              

Table of Contents………………………………………

iii

List of Illustrations….....................................

iv

ABSTRACT…………………………

1

1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………

1

   1.1 Comparison of Martian and terrestrial dust devils………

2

     1.1.1 Geographic Occurrences and the Greenhouse and Thermophoresis Effect……

2

     1.1.2 Seasonal Occurrences and Electrical Properties…………

3

     1.1.3. Size and Shape ………………………………………………………

3

     1.1.4. Diurnal Formation Rate and Lifetime………………………

4

     1.1.5 Wind Speeds……………………………………………………………

4

     1.1.6 Core Temperature Excursions…………………………………

4

     1.1.7 Dust Particle Size – The Problem of Martian Dust <2 Microns and Wind Speeds.

4

     1.1.8. Core Pressure Excursions………………………

4

   1.2. NASA Ames Test of Martian Pressures and Dust Devils …………

7

2. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE INSTRUMENTATION PROBLEMS

8

   2.1 Viking 2 and Gay-Lussac’s Law……………………

10

   2.2 Pathfinder and Phoenix Pressure Issues…………………

15

   2.3. Which Transducers Were Used?……………………

18

   2.4. Issues Raised by the FMI

19

2.5. DID ANY TAVIS OR VAISALA TRANSDUCERS PEG OUT AT THEIR MAXIMUM PRESSURES?...............

25

    2.5.1 How extraordinary was the (temporary) 1,149 Pa pressure spike of MSL Sol 370?

25

     2.5.2. The importance of gleaning data from identification of our web site readers.

26

    2.5.3 Why is it so wrong to alter data to fit an expected curve? 

32

   2.6 The Dust filter on Viking…………

36

      2.6.1. The issue of Viking pressure reports and digitization……………

36

     2.6.2. The issue of daily pressure spikes at consistent time-bins.

36

2.7. MSL Weather Reporting Fiasco

42

3. CAVES ON AND SPIRAL CLOUDS ABOVE ARSIA MONS ON MARS

45

4. THE ISSUES OF SNOW, WATER ICE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON MARS.

48

   4.1. Annual Pressure Fluctuations Recorded by Viking 1, Viking 2, and Phoenix -Maximum Pressure in the Northern Winter?...

48

4.1.1. Ls of minimum pressure………

48

4.1.2. Ls of maximum pressure…………………

48

5. RADIO OCCULTATION………………………………

60

5.1 Shifting Standards – The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure.  

65

6.  SPECTROSCOPY PRESSURE READINGS BY MARS EXPRESS ORBITER..

65

7.  MARTIAN WIND PROBLEMS…...............

66

   7.1 Anemometer/Telltale Wind Speed Issues…………………

67

   7.2 Martian Bedforms – Too Much Movement of Sand Dunes and Ripples for 6.1 mbar

68

   7.2.1 Issues Raised by the paper on Planet-wide sand motion on Mars by Bridges et al. (2012)

69

8. DO DOWNRANGE LANDINGS MEAN THINNER OR THICKER AIR?

74

9. DUST OPACITY AND PRESSURE

77

10. EXCESSIVE DECELERATION DURING AEROBRAKING OPERATIONS

78

   10.1 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)…………………

79

   10.2 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)……………

79

11. MARS PATHFINDER PRESSURES

80

12.  THE POTENTIAL PRESSURE ON MARS……………

81

   12.1 Did NASA ever publicly back 20 mbar on Mars?

82

   12.2 Biology, Methane, and a Possible Hint of the Real Martian Air Pressure

83

   12.3 Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Perchlorates and Running Water on Mars

86

     12.3.1 Length of daylight where RSL are found…

87

     12.3.2 Latitudes, times and temperatures for evidence of running water…

87

     12.3.3 The role of perchlorates in RSL………………

87

    12.4 Other Water on Mars – the Frozen Sea at Utopia Planitia

92

   12.5 The High End of Pressure Estimates for Mars

94

13. RELATIVE HUMIDITY……………

98

14. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT CONCERNS

101

    14.1. Ground Temperature Problems

103

    14.2. Winter Ground Temperatures above freezing in MSL Year 2

109

    14.3. Why the early winter ground temperatures are so important and possible life seen on Sol 1185.

109

15. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND CLOUD COVER AT MSL.

113

15.1 Solar Longitude for sols at MSL with very high and low ultraviolet radiation.

114

16. CONCLUSIONS……………

118

17. RECOMMENDATIONS

123

18. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……

124

AFTERWORD: What difference could this all possibly make? ………………

125

      Note on January 20, 2017

131

20. REFERENCES

132

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE BASIC REPORT

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Arsia Mons dust devils

3

2

Utah dust devil pressure drop

5

3

Pressure drops at Phoenix and Pathfinder

5

4

Relative magnitude of 0.62 mbar increase in pressure for Viking 1 at its sol 332.3 and pressure drops or 79 convective vortices/dust devils at Mars pathfinder

6

5A

First photo from the surface of Mars and dust kicked up

9

5B

Rocks on the deck of the MSL Curiosity

9

6

Pressure calculator with Gay-Lussac Pressure Law and Viking 2 results.

11

7

Prediction success totals per time-bin and corresponding % of successful predictions.

12

8

Sample of Annex F – Viking 1 daily pressure predictions & measurements with cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions

13

9A-9C

Relationship of temperature changes to pressure changes on Viking 2

14

10A

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

16

10B

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

17

10C

Three different Tavis transducers

18

11A

Vaisala pressure transducer on Phoenix and MSL

19

11B

Relative size of dust filters for Mars landers

20

12A

Pressure and Temperatures Recorded by Phoenix

21

12B

Except for Sol 370 the black MSL pressure curve is suspiciously too close to the Viking 2 curve above it and the Viking 1 curve below it. 

22

13

Quality control Individuals test.

25

14A

MSL sensor pegged out at max pressure

27

14B

MSL pressure sols 369-371

28

14C

The REMS team alters the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

29

14D

Ashima Research has not yet altered the critical MSL Sol 370 pressure data

29

14E

REMS also alters pressures for Sols 1160 and 1161.

30

14F

REMS again revises pressures for Sols 1300 and 1301.

31

14G

REMS alters temperature data too when it is off the curve.

32

15A

MSL REMS Block Diagram

33

15B

Real Mars Sky Color

33

16A

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

38

16B

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134 -199.

38

16C

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

38

16D

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

38

16E

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

39

16F

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

39

16G

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

39

16H

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

39

16I

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

40

16J

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

40

16K

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291- 305.

40

16L

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

40

17A

REMS Team data confusion

43

17B

Data day length and wind report changes from Ashima Research due to our efforts

43

18A-D

Inverse relationship between MSL pressures and temperatures

44

19

Caves on Arsia Mons

46

20

Spiral clouds over Arsia Mons

47

21A

1,177Pa and 1,200 Pa maximum pressures published

49

21B

Approximate display of how MSL pressure data fits in with VL-2, VL-1 and Phoenix data. 

50

22

Ashima Research does not support exact minimum MSL pressures published by the REMS Team

51

23

Pressure curve for MSL’s first 866 sols.

57

24

Radio Occultation Points on Mars with locations of Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons indicated

63

25

MOLA map of Mars with topographic features, landing sites, and methane plumes

64

26A

Mars Express OMEGA spectroscopy-derive surface pressures

65

26B

Four years of in situ pressures at Viking 1 lander site

65

27

Phoenix telltale waving in Martian wind

67

28

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 1 for its sols 1 to 116 and 134 to 350

70

29

Wind speeds recorded at Viking 2 for its sols 1 to 399

71

30

Erasure of Spirit’s tracks during the 2007 global dust storm

72

31

Dust Storms and pressures recorded at Vikings 1 and 2.

73

32

Reconstructed density for Spirit landing

75

33

Reconstructed density for  Opportunity entry

75

34

Reconstructed density for Phoenix entry

76

35

Dust Storm at Luke Air Forces Base, July 5, 2011.

77

36

Opacity changes at Opportunity from sols 1205 to 1235.

78

37

VL1 pressure and opacity

78

38

Actual Dynamic Pressure – normalized to an altitude of 121 km

79

39A

Time-averaged surface pressures for 30 sols of Pathfinder

80

39B

Diurnal pressure cycle for MSL Sol  10 and MPF Sols 9 and 10

81

40

History of beliefs about Martian Atmospheric Pressure

82

41A

Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

83

41B

Methane spikes seen by MSL at Gale Crater.

84

42A-I plus Plates 5 and 6

The Color of the Martian Sky

85

43A

Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)

89

43B

Location of RSL on Mars

90

43C

Projected surface and subsurface temperature to 10 cm depth at Melas Chasma

90

43D

Relation between temperature, season & direction for RSL at Melas Chasma

90

43E

Spectroscopy, RSL & perchlorates/Perchlorates and boiling point on Mars

91

43F

Map of Utopia Planitia where a water ice sea was found on Mars

93

44

Pressure predictions based on stratus clouds 16 km over Mars Pathfinder

97

45

Relative humidity is missing from REMS weather reports

98

46

Relative humidity claims for Gale crater

99

47

Relative humidity in the blast zone, arriving at Rocknest, leaving Rocknest and at Glenelg in Gale Crater.

100

48

The REMS Team drops above freezing temperatures to below freezing

102

49

Huge uncertainty of MSL ground temperatures

103

50A

MSL temperature sensor range

104

50B

MSL ground temperature sensor

105

50C

Mars Science Laboratory high air and ground temperatures for 2 Martian years.

106

50D

Mars Science Laboratory low air and ground temperatures for 2 Martian years.

107

51

Unaveraged periodic temperature data from Mars Pathfinder (0.25 meters to 1 meter height)

108

52

The green spherical and cocoon-like objects seen on sols 1185 and 1189. The green spheres might be photosynthetic life.

110

53

Elevations and ground temperatures encountered while MSL was at positions noted by JPL. Possible life was seen on Sol 1185, along with a warmer than expected high ground temperature. The position noted for MSL for Sol 1248 is a return to within 20 meters of where the potential life was seen before. Then it moved within about 10 meters of the site.

111

54

Some of the unusually warm ground temperatures including five above freezing seen early in MSL Year 2 Winter.

112

55

Initial low µv values reported by the REMS Team and how the reports were altered.

116

56

Original distribution of very high and low µv values at Gale Crater as related to solar longitude as Mars orbits around the sun.

117

57

The true blue color of Mars

124

 

 

TABLES IN THE BASIC REPORT

TABLE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressure at various elevations on Mars based on a scale height of 10.8 and a pressure at Mars Areoid of 6.1 mbar. 

7

2

Viking 1 cyclic accuracies for pressure predictions.

11

3

Pressures revised by JPL/MSL after we highlighted them

23-24

4A

Sample of how the Mars Correct team tracks weather data published by the REMS Team/JPL

35

4B

Digitization limitations and the specific pressures reported by VL-2 for its first summer on Mars

37

5

Viking 1 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies

41

6

Viking 2 Time-bin pressure and temperature change studies               

42

7

Pressures @ LS 90 and minimum pressures seen by VL-1, VL-2 and MSL

52

8

Landers and expected pressures based on landing altitude

53

9

Comparison of Viking 1 and Viking 2 Pressures for Ls 270

54

10

Variations in day length at Ls 70 South

55

11

Comparison of Martian Pressures via Radio Occultation & Calculated Scale Height Calculations

60

12

Six attempts by Mariners 4, 6 and 7 to measure pressure by radio occultation.

61

13

Profile of the windiest Viking day on Mars

69

14

MSL temperatures altered by the REMS Team in July, 2013

101

15

Usually warm ground temperatures early in the winter of MSL year 2

110

16A

Ultraviolet radiation reported through 1,256 sols at MSL (before NASA eliminated all low ultraviolet radiation values

113

16B

REMS-revised μv radiation reported through 1,328 sols after all 19 original low μv values were dropped.

113

 

 

ANNEXES (with links) AND APPENDICES

 

SECTION

TOPIC

PAGE

Annex Abstract

Overview of data in the Annexes

A-1

ANNEX A

VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock.

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf

A-2 to

A-59

ANNEX A Appendix 1

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf

A-3 to A-22

Appendix 2

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199.

A-23 to

A-34

Appendix 3

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219.

A-35 to A-38

Appendix 4

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304

A-39 to    A-50

Appendix 5

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334

A-51 to    A-55

Appendix 6

VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350

A-56 to    A-59

ANNEX B

VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20B%209%20September%202013.pdf

B-1 to B-39

Appendix 1

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175

B-2 to B-5

Appendix 2

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199.

B-6 to B-10

Appendix 3

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260.

B-11 to     B-20

 

Appendix 4

 

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290.

B-21 to     B-26

Appendix 5

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305.

B-27 to     B-30

Appendix 6

VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361

B-31 to     B-39

ANNEX C

VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGE

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20C%209%20September%202013.pdf

C-1 to C-54

ANNEX D

PERCENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED PRESSURES ON VIKING AND GAY-LUSSAC/ AMONTON’S LAW-BASED PREDICTIONS

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20D%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

D-1 to D-171

Appendix 1

Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199

D-3 to D-94

Appendix 2

Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350

D-95 to    D-171

ANNEX E

Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20E%209%20September%202013.pdf

E-1 to E-14

ANNEX F

Percent Difference Experimental Summary

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20F%20%2010%20September%202013.pdf

F-1 to F-18

Appendix 1

Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350

F-5 to F-16

Appendix 2

Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins

F-17 to     F-18

ANNEX G

Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Results

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20G%2010%20September%202013.pdf

G-1 to G-13

 

ANNEX H

Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experiment

http://marscorrect.com/Annex%20H%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

H-1 to H-43

ANNEX I

Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20I%209%20September%202013.pdf

I-1 to I-28

Appendix 1

Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports

I-12 to I-28

ANNEX J

Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSL

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20J%20%209%20September%202013.pdf

J- 1to J-19

ANNEX K

REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%2010%20SEP%202013.pdf

K-1 to K-34

ANNEX L

How Martian Day Length  Varies with Ls and Latitude

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%20July%2014%202014.pdf

L-1 to L-10

ANNEX M

One Year of MSL Weather Reports http://marscorrect.com/Annex%20M%20JULY%2014%202014.pdf

M-1 to M-38

ANNEX N

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864  http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20N.pdf

N-1 to N-13

ANNEX O

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0  (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20O.pdf

O-1 to O-11

ANNEX P

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90  (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20P.pdf

P-1 to P-15

ANNEX Q

Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 to 3 Winter, Ls 90 to Ls 180 (Sols 1,213 to 1,392) http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20Q.pdf

Q-1 to Q-18

ANNEX R

Weather Reports for MSL Year 3 Spring, Ls 180 to Ls 270 (Sols 1,392 to 1,534

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20R%20REVISED.pdf

R-1 to R-37

ANNEX S

Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatures

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20S.pdf

S-1 to S41

ANNEX T

Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatures

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20T%20TO.pdf

T-1 to T-64

ANNEX U

Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2

http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20U.pdf

U-1 to U-28

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX A

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Martian Time-Bin Clock

A-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX F

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Prediction success totals per time-bin.

F-1

2

% Differences between measured & predicted pressures as a function of time

F-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX G

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Tavis pressure sensors tested according to the Alvin Seiff papers

G-1

2

Tavis Viking CAD Diagram 10011

G-2

3

NASA Report No. TM X-74020 (Mitchell Report: Tavis Transducer Tests)

G-3

4

Photo of the Tavis P-4 pressure sensor

G-4

5

Transducer Selection Slide by Professor James E. Tillman

G-6

6

Tavis Pathfinder CAD Diagram 10484

G-7

7

Design diagrams for Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8)

G-8

 

8

P-4 Transducers (S/N 1583 and S/N 1591) used for test of Viking pressures sensors after the launch of the two Vikings.

G-9

9

Relative sizes of dust filters used for Tavis and Vaisala transducers.

G-9

10

Table of Characteristics of Tavis transducers (Models P-1, P-2, P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 & P-8)

G-10

11

Tavis Transducer purchasing information

G-11

12

Temperature Malfunction During (Viking) Cruise Environment

G-13

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX I

FIGURE

TOPIC

PAGE

1

Pressure data for MSL Sols 10.5 to 13

I-1

2

MSL temperature data for Sols 10 to 11.5

I-1

3A

REMS Team and Ashima Research coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how Ashima was forced to alter their reports on May 11, 2013.

I-2

3B

REMS Team coverage of weather at MSL back in August, 2012, and how their data was revised again on July 3, 2013.

I-3

4

REMS Weather Booms on MSL

I-5

5

Close up of MSL Weather Booms

I-5

6a to 6d

Temperature and pressure were inversely related for the MSL

I-8

7

Combined VL-1, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL Pressure Curves to MSL at Ls 10

I-9

8

MSL pressure graph Ls 158.8 to 199.9

I-10

6

REMS team and Ashima Research reporting problems

I-12

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX J

 

1

Position of Mars at the start of each of its 12 months.

J-4

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX L

 

1

Changing Martian weather data from the REMS Team.

L-2

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX M

 

1

Pressure changes reported for Sol 370.

M-7

2

Pressure changes for Sols 29 and 30

M-38

3

Who is ordering REMS reports temperature changes?

M-40

4

Weather sensors on MSL Curiosity

M-41

5

VL1-, VL-2, Phoenix and MSL pressure curves

M-43

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX N

 

1

MSL pressure data up through its Sol 866, Ls 270 – start of the second summer at MSL

N-2

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX O

 

1

MSL pressure data up to Ls 270, start of the second summer

O-1

2

MSL Sol 880 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-9

3

MSL Sol 1006 data changes after we highlighted problems

O-10

4

Mistakes and significant data alterations early on cast real doubt on the accuracy or honesty of MSL weather data.   

O-11

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX P

 

1

JPL makes changes to Sol 1,119 data that we predicted

P-12

2

MSL Sol 1145 data changes after we highlighted problems

P-13

3

MSL Sol 1160 and 1161 pressures that are record highs and above the 1,150 Pa limit of the Vaisala pressure sensor

P-14

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX S

 

1

Range of high air and ground temperatures through MSL Years 1 and 2.

S-1

2

REMS weather reports published for MSL Sols 1234 to 1241. Note all the ground temperature highs above 0 degrees Celsius and the incredibly low ground temperature at night – down to -100 degrees Celsius on Sol 1241.

S-2

 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN ANNEX U

 

1

UV at MSL in Gale Crater, Mars up through its sol 1021 and the beginning of its second autumn on Mars. The REMS Team/JPL dropped all low values by February, 2016

U-2

2A

The color for UV used on REMS reports.

 

U-20

2B

Dose rate at MSL in micrograys per day related to UV levels published on the REMS reports (see Table 2) for ~300 sols

 

U-20

3A to 3F

Relative positions of Mars and Earth when Low Ultraviolet radiations was originally reported by REMS on Mars.

U-23

4

Stratus clouds seen 1 hours 40 minutes before sunrise at Mars Pathfinder. If the atmosphere there is as thin as NASA claims it is doubtful that there would be light so far before sunrise.

U-24

5

Opportunity turned its rover eyes skyward to observe clouds drifting overhead that look like cirrus clouds on Earth.

 

U-26

6

Solar longitude (Ls) for Mars when MSL Curiosity originally measured very high UV or low UV. Again, after they read this article, they dropped all the low UV values.

U-27

7

UV, Latitude and Altitude

U-28

 

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX S

 

1

Usually Warm Ground Temperatures Early in the Winter of MSL Year 2

S-2

2

High air and ground temperatures for MSL Years 1 and 2.

S-4 to S-40

 

LIST OF TABLES IN ANNEX U

 

1

UV values for MSL Years 1 and 2 before and after JPL dropped all low UV values

U-1

2

Solar Longitude, Pressures and Ultraviolet Radiation for MSL During its First Two Martian Years.

U-3 to

U-19

3

The relationships (if any) of solar longitude (Ls), lander altitude, lander latitude, day light hours each sol and UV recorded.

U-21

4

15 Sols with low ultraviolet radiation at Gale Crater Mars and the corresponding UV for these dates in Las Vegas, Nevada BEFORE the REMS Team and JPL dropped all low pressure data.

U-24

 


 


 


 

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