PATHFINDER VS. MSL & VL-1 TEMPERATURE AND HEIGHT DATA

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This page under construction on 10/16/2016. NOTE: THIS PAGE WAS HACKED INTO ON11/9/2016. DATA NEEDS TO BE CHECKED.

This article, when initially complete, will compare temperatures recorded by Mars Pathfinder (MPF) with those reported by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Viking 1. MPF sent back data over the span of 78 sols between Ls (solar longitude) 142.7 and Ls 177 (spring in the tropics of the northern hemisphere at latitude 19.3° North). Temperatures were recorded for heights of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 meters. MSL landed at 4.59° South. Because the comparisons below are based on similar Ls, the distance from the sun is not a factor. However while the data for MPF is for the spring, it's for the autumn for MSL. This affects daylight hours. For Viking 1 initial dalight was about 13.22 hours, for MPF it was about 13.09 hours, while at MSL it was about 12.186 hours. At the end of the MPF weather instrument functionality daylight was down to about 12.23 hours for Viking 1, 12.41 hours for MPF , while for MSL it was up to about 12.339 hours. What complicates the comparison is that NASA/JPL/the REMS Team has published often revised air and ground temperatures. Worse, we have no ground temperatures for Viking 1 and for MPF, we only have air temperatures 0.25 meters (9.84 inches) above the ground. None-the-less, when all tables below are complete, we will attempt to use changes in air temperature with respect to MPF temperature sensor heights to infer something about air density. MSL temperature sensors were about 1.5 meters above ground, and they will also be discussed in detail below. Viking 1 also landed in the tropics at 22.48 degrees North (Smith et al. states 22.2692 N). The Viking air temperature data source will be from Tillman et al. at http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/mars/data/vl1/part1.html. Although the Vikings did not supply ground temperatures, we may derive meaningful data by comparing air tempertures and altitudes from the four lander data sets (2 MSL years, 1 MPF plus VL1).

Mars Pathfinder Lander vs. Viking 1 Temperature Sensor Heights (source: https://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/ops/asimet.html). The Mars Pathfinder Lander measures air temperature with sensors located on the Meteorological mast at 10, 20, and 40 inches, (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 meters) above the solar panel. Air temperatures measured during the first three days of the mission show an afternoon high near +14 degrees Fahrenheit (264 Kelvin). [The 270 degree Kelvin temperatures measured at noon on Sol 1 were obtained while the mast was still lying down just above a warm solar panel]. During the day, the air temperatures measured by the lowest of the 3 sensors are 9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit (5 to 6 Kelvin) warmer than those measured by the top sensor because the atmosphere is heated by the sunlit surface below it. At night, the ground cools more quickly than the atmosphere, and the warmest air temperatures are measured by the uppermost temperature sensor. These temperature differences provide information about the exchange of heat between the surface and the atmosphere. The Viking landers could not determine this quantity directly because they measured the air temperature at only one height (64 inches or 1.6 meters). The air temperatures measured by Pathfinder are slightly warmer than those seen 21 years ago at the nearby Viking Lander 1 site at the same Martian season. This may result because the somewhat darker surface at the Pathfinder landing site absorbs more sunlight than the Viking 1 Landing site.

 

Table 1 - Maximum and Minimum Daily Temperature Data for Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL).

Note: MPF daily lows were around 0500 local time, highs were around 1400 to 1500. Where these times are missing N/A is recorded.

MPF Ls is derived from the Mars Time Calculator at http://www-mars.lmd.jussieu.fr/mars/time/martian_time.html.The Mars Time Calculator shows Ls to the nearest 10th of a degree. The REMS figures only show Ls to the nearest degree, but there is an error on one of these systems. There is a 4 to 5 degree disagreement between the Mars Time Calculator and sequential Ls reports by REMS. Corrections are mostly in place on Table 6 and will be brought up.

Solar

Longitude

(Ls)

MPF 

Earth

Date

MPF 

Sol

MPF

Daylight

Hours

MSL Sols

MSL

Daylight

Hours

Local

MPF

Time

MPF

Decimal

Sol

MPF Temperatures Celsius

MSL Year 1 and MSL Year 2 Temperatures Celsius
                1.0 meters 0.5 meters 0.25 meters

 MSL Low

Air Temp

MSL Low

Ground Temp

MSL Ground

High Temp

MSL Air

High Temp

142.7

July

1 13.09  653, 1322 12.186  12:58:30 1.526162 -0.8 -3.9 0.1

-80

-78

-80

-75

-4

-5

-13

-10

 
143.2 J5 2 13.08 

654, 1323

     

Low N/A

Low N/A

Low N/A

-79

-77

-79

-74

   
143.2
J5
2   654, 1323   14:24:10 2.584058 -15.9 -13.0 -9.6    

-4

-5

-8

-11

143.7 J6 3 13.07 655, 1324  12.19 05:13:03 3.211575 -76.0 -76.4 -77.8

-77

-78

-81

-74

   
143.7
J6
3   655, 1324    14:52:59 3.603531 -15.1 -12.5 -8.9    

0

-7

-14

-9

144.2 J7 4 13.07 656, 1325  12.192 05:41:53 4.231071 -74.8 -75.4 -76.6

-80

-78

-83

-74

   
 144.2 J7
4   656, 1325    14:23:46 4.583793 -14.6 -11.1 -7.8    

-3

-6

-13

-14

144.7 J8 5 13.055 657, 1326  12.194 05:41:40 5.230922 -74.5 -75.0 -76.2

-79

-77

-79

-74

   
 144.7 J8
5   657, 1326    12:27:37 5.505289 -20.2 -15.6 -12.4    

1

-7

-6

-15

145.2 J9 6 13.05 658, 1327 12.195 04:43:32 6.191629 -75.0 -75.6 -77.2

-79

-76

-87

-75

   
 145.2 J9
6   658, 1327    15:06:40 6.612782 -13.7 -11.6 -8.4    

1

-6

-10

-11

145.7 J10 7 13.04 659, 1328  12.1954 04:14:23 7.171924 -71.2 -71.7 -76.6

-77

-77

-83

-73

   
 145.7 J10
7   659, 1328   N/A  N/A High N/A High N/A High N/A    

1

-7

-14

-12

146.2 J11 8   660, 1329 12.1954  N/A  N/A Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A 

-78

-74

-84

-72

   
146.2 J11 8 13.03 660, 1329   `12.1995 15:20:27 8.622103 -14.0 -11.9 -8.7    

1

-2

-12

-15

146.7 J12 9  13.01 661, 1330   12.2 05:11:22 9.210443 -75.7 -76.2 -77.7

-76

-78

-85

-79

   
 146.7 J12
9   13.01 661, 1330    15:20:27 9.622100 -14.8 -12.5 -9.0    

1

-1

-10

-14

147.2 J13 10 13.01 662, 1331  12.2 04:42:16 10.190772 -71.7 -71.9 -75.4

-77

-76

-78

-78

   
 147.2 J13
10 13.01 662, 1331       High N/A  High N/A       

4

0

-11

-19

 147.7 J14 11 13 663, 1332        Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-78

-83

-79

   
147.7 J14 11 13 663, 1332  12.204 15:44:12 11.638147 -15.3 -13.3 -10.8    

4

0

-10

-11

148.2 J15 12  12.99 664, 1333   12.208 05:35:04 12.226464 -75.5 -76.0 -77.7

-78

-76

-81

-80

   
 148.2 J15
12 12.99 664, 1333  12.208 16:11:43 12.656753 -16.3 -14.9 -12.4    

0

0

-8

-18

148.7 J16 13  12.98 665, 1334  12.21 03:08:32 13.127424 -71.7 -72.1 -76.3

-78

-77

-82

-78

   
 148.7 J16
13  12.98 665, 1334  12.21 16:11:43 13.656750 -16.8 -15.2 -12.8    

-4

0

-24

-12

149.2 J17 14 12.97 666, 1335  12.212 05:33:35 14.225456 -75.6 -76.0 -77.1

-77

-77

-80

-77

   
 149.2 J17
14  12.97 666, 1335 12.212 15:42:43 14.637147 -16.3 -14.4 -11.4    

7

1

-4

-10

149.7 J18 15  12.96 667, 1336  12.215 05:33:38 15.225487 -76.0 -76.9 -78.2

-76

-75

-81

-76

   
149.7
 J18 15  12.96 667, 1336  12.215 15:28:05 15.627254 -15.1 -13.5 -10.2    

0

1

-7

-12

150.2 J19 16 12.95 668, 1337  12.217 05:18:58 16.215582 -77.2 -78.3 -80.2

-78

-76

-75

-79

   
 150.2  J19 16  12.95 668, 1337  12.217              

0

1

-7

-13

150.8 J20 17  12.94 669, 1338 12.22          

-84

-75

-91

-78

   
 150.8  J20 17  12.94 669, 1338  12.22              

6

0

-4

-18

151.3 J21 18 12.93 670, 1339  12.221          

-79

-77

-85

-78

   
 151.3  J21 18  12.93 670, 1339 12.221 14:50:41 18.601985 -13.0 -10.8 -7.5    

-8

2

-4

-18

151.8

J22

19

 

 12.92 671, 1340 12.223     Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-79

-76

-80

-77

   
 151.8  J22 19  12.92 671, 1340  12.223 14:50:55 19.602134 -13.1 -10.7 -7.5    

4

15

-7

-3

152.3

J23

20 12.91 672, 1341  12.225 03:14:48 20.131663 -70.0 -70.4 -74.3

-78

-76

 -83

-77

   
 152.3 J23
20  12.91 672, 1341 12.225 14:22:06 20.582667 -16.0 -13.2 -10.3    

6

1

-15

-9

152.8 J24 21  12.9 673, 1342  12.228 05:11:03 21.210229 -76.6 -77.1 -78.9

-78

-80

-96

-77

   
 152.8  J24 21  12.9 673, 1342  12.228 14:51:21 21.602433 -13.2 -11.0 -7.4    

7

-4

-1

-7

153.3 J25 22 12.88 674, 1343  12.23 04:42:11 22.190716 -76.9 -77.6 -79.6

-80

-74

-94

-71

   
153.3  J25 22  12.88 674, 1343  12.23 15:20:16 22.621974 -14.9 -13.6 -10.8    

8

-6

-16

-8

153.9

J26

23

Missing Lo

 12.87 675, 1344  12.223          

-80

-75

-91

-72

   
153.9 J26 23  12.87 675, 1344  12.223 14:51:33 23.602562 -13.3 -11.2 -7.7    

7

-3

-17

-14

154.4 J27 24 12.86 676, 1345  12.234 04:42:25 24.190879 -77.2 -78.3 -80.1

-78

-75

-79

-74

   
  154.4 J27 24  12.86 676, 1345  12.234 13:53:39 24.563438 -15.2 -12.0 -7.8    

10

-1

-12

-19

154.9 J28 25  12.86 677, 1346  12.238 05:11:38 25.210623 -78.3 -79.2 -81.2

-78

-75

-79

-73

   
154.9 J28 25 12.86 677, 1346       N/A N/A N/A    

0

9

-12

-16

155.4 J29 26 12.86  678, 1347  12.24 14:47:20 26.599715 -13.0 -10.9 -7.6

-77

-75

-79

-85

   
155.4 J29 26 12.86 678, 1347                

0

9

-12

-16

155.9 J30 27 12.83  679, 1348 12.243 05:07:20 27.207711 -77.3 -78.0 -79.7

-77

-76

-80

-85

   
155.9 J30 27    679, 1348       N/A N/A N/A    

-1

11

-17

-15

156.5   J31 28   680, 1349            

-76

-73

-80

-84

   
156.5 J31 28  12.84 680, 1349 12.245 13:49:44 28.560791 -13.4 -9.6 -6.1    

1

11

-13

-15

157 A1 29  12.82 681, 1350 12.247 05:56:42 29.241082 -74.0 -76.0 -77.7

-79

-73

-80

-79

   
157  A1  29  12.82 681, 1350 12.2473
14:19:03 29.580602 -13.5 -11.6 -7.5    

1

10

-15

-9

157.5 A2 30 12.8 682, 1351 12.25
05:08:02 30.208187 -75.5 -76.1 -77.3

-77

-72

-80

-79

   
    157.5 A2 30  12.8  682, 1351 12.25
13:21:16 30.541546 -17.1 -12.8 -9.2    

2

4

-17

-9

158 A3 31  12.799  683, 1352 12.252
    Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-79

-73

-80

-78

   
158 A3 31   683, 1352       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

2

4

-16

-12

158.6 A4 32 12.79  683, 1353  12.254     Low N/A Low N/A  Low N/A

-75

-76

-82

-75

   
158.6 A4 32   684, 1353       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

4

-7

-6


159.1
A5 33
  684, 1354             -75
-78
   
159.1 A5 33  12.77  684, 1354  12.256 14:43:20 33.597015 -13.2 -10.9 -7.6    

6

3

 

-9

-5

159.6 A6 34  12.76  685, 1355  12.258     Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-77

N/A

-85

N/A

   
159.6 A6 34    685, 1355       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

6

4

-9

-11

160.1 A7 34   686, 1356       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-78

-75

   
160.1 A7 35  12.759  686, 1356  12.26 13:56:20 35.565250 -13.1 -10.8 -6.9    

8

3

-2

-5

160.7 A8 36   687, 1357       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-74

-78

-77

   
160.7  A8 36  12.74  687, 1357  12.263 13:55:43 36.564831 -13.7 -10.8 -7.7     2
3

-4

-5

161.2 A9 37   688, 1358       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-72

-78

-79

   
161.2 A9 37  12.735  688, 1358  12.266 14:53:33 37.603917 -10.3 -9.8 -6.5    

3

3

-2

-16

161.7 A10 38  12.72  689, 1359  12.268     Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-76

-74

-77

-78

   
161.7 A10 38   689, 1359       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

2

-5

-16

162.3 A11 39   690, 1360       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-76

-77

-76

   
162.3 A11 39  12.71  690, 1360  12.27 13:55:18 39.564553 -12.5 -9.9 -6.7    

6

2

-6

-13

163 A12 40   691, 1361       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-75

-81

-77

   
163 A12 40  12.7  691, 1361  12.273 13:57:43 40.566177 -11.6 -9.0 -5.7    

4

1

-8

-16

  A13

PROBLEM:

NO

MPF

HIGH

OR LOW

UNTIL MPF

SOL 50

                       
168.2 A22     692, 1362       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-76

   
 168.2 A22 50  12.69  692, 1362  12.275 12:55:14 50.523952 -15.0 -11.9 -7.9    

6

4

-4

-1

 168.7 A23 51  12.68  693, 1363  12.278     Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-76

-75

-80

-74

   
 168.7 A23     693, 1363                

4

3

-8

--2

 169.3 A24      694, 1364            

-76

-74

-75

-69

   
 169.3  A24 52  12.679  694, 1364  12.28 14:24:30 52.584279 -12.5 -11.4 -7.8    

6

1

-4

-4

169.8 A25 53                

-75

-74

-75

-70

   
169.8
A25
53   695, 1365                

2

0

-2

-3

170.4 A26  54    696, 1366       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-75

-75

-74

   
 170.4 A26 54  12.64  696, 1366  12.285 13:26:17 54.544938 -13.0 -11.9 -8.2    

2

-5

-1

-5

 170.9 A27     697, 1367        Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-73

-86

-75

   
170.9 A27 55  12.639  697, 1367  12.288 14:23:44 55.583763 -12.2 -10.5 -6.8    

11

5

-1

-2

171.5 A28                  

-74

-76

-78

-77

   
171.5 A28 56  12.639  698. 1368  12.288 14:54:20 55.604445 -11.0 -10.4 -7.4    

9

6

-2

1

 172 A29     699, 1369            

-77

CHECK

-76

-83

-78

   
 172 A29 57  12.62 699, 1369  12.29 14:24:09 56.584049 -10.7 -10.4 7.3    

8

6

-4

1

 172.6 A30 58    700. 1370       Low N/A Low N/A  Low N/A 

-77

-77

-83

-77

   
 172.6 A30 58  12.619  700, 1370 12.293
    High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

9

-4

-7

 173.1 A31 59  12.61  701, 1371  12.295     Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-74

-83

-76

   
 173.1 A31 59    701, 1371       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

9

10

 

-3

-7

 
 173.7 S1 60    702, 1372       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-77

   
 173.7 S1 60  12.6  702, 1372  12.3 12:55:40 59.524242 -15.1 -12.7 -8.8

 

 

 

9

10

-2

-8

174.2 S2 61   703, 1373       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-78

-74

-81

-69

   
 174.2 S2 61  12.6  703, 1373  12.3 13:26:16 59.544924 -14.5        

8

4

-2

-11

174.8 S3 62   704, 1374       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-73

-78

-76

   
 174.8 S3 62  12.58 704, 1374  12.301 13:26:23 60.545000 -12.3 -10.1 -6.6    

8

10

-1

3

 175.3 S4 63   705, 1375       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-74

   
 175.3 S4 63  12.57  705, 1375  12.303 13:26:31 61.545098 -12.9 -11.8 -7.9    

8

7

-1

-2

 175.9 S5 64   706, 1376       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-75

-78

-74

   
 175.9 S5 64 12.56  706, 1376  12.305 12:56:02 62.524493 -16.7 -13.2 -9.6    

8

10

-2

-3

 176.5 S6  65   707, 1377       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-75

-78

-74

   
 176.5 S6 65   707, 1377       High N/A High N/A High N/A    

9

10

-6

-1

 177 S7 66   708, 1378       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-84

-77

   
177 S7 66  12.54  708, 1378 12.31
12:56:17 64.524656 -15.2 -13.3 -9.4    

12

17

5

2

 177.6 S8 67   709, 1379       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-73

-82

-81

   
177.6 S8 67   709, 1379       High N/A High N/A High N/A  

 

 

 

14

18

 

-9

4

178.1 S9 68    710, 1380       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-77

-77

-77

   
178.1 S9 68  12.52  710, 1380 12.313
14:22:38 65.583026 -10.3 -9.4 -6.0    

8

N/A

0

N/A

178.7 S10 69   711, 1381       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

N/A

-88

N/A

   
 178.7 S10 69  12.51  711, 1381  12.315 12:56:50 66.525034 -14.8 -10.8 -7.4    

5

N/A

1

N/A

179.3
S11 70   712, 1382       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-76

N/A

   
179.3 S11 70  12.5  712, 1382 12.32
13:26:43 67.545228 -15.2 -14.0 -10.1    

5

N/A

1

N/A

179.8
S12 71    713, 1383       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-73

N/A

-78

N/A

   
 179.8 S12 71  12.49  713, 1383 12.321
14:22:20 68.582814 -13.7 -12.7 -9.6    

5

N/A

1

N/A

180.4
S13 72   714, 1384       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

N/A

check

N/A

   
 180.4 S13 72  12.48  714, 1384 12.323
03:44:10 69.151509 -74.6 -77.4 -79.7    

16

N/A

-11

N/A

180.9
S14 73   715, 1385       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

N/A

-87

N/A

   
 180.9 S14 73  12.47  715, 1385  12.326 14:25:25 70.584904 -13.0 -12.5 -8.9    

15

N/A

-12

N/A

181.5
S15 74   716, 1386       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

N/A

-87

N/A

   
 181.5 S15 74  12.46  716, 1386  12.328 13:54:46 71.564186 -20.0 -18.5 -15.1    

18

N/A

-11

N/A

182.1
S16 75   717, 1387       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-79

N/A

   
 182.1 S16 75  12.44  717, 1387 12.33
13:26:04 72.544786 -13.4 -11.2 -7.7    

18

N/A

-10

N/A

182.6
S17 76   718, 1388       Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-79

N/A

   
 182.6 S17 76  12.43  718, 1388 12.333
             

19

N/A

12

N/A

183.2
S18 77   719, 1389            

-73

 N/A

-75

N/A

   
 183.2 S18 77  12.42  719, 1389  12.335 12:55:45 74.524302 -16.7 -15.2 -11.2    

8

N/A

2

N/A

 183.8  S19 78   720, 1390            

-77

N/A

-82

N/A

   
 183.8 S19 78  12.41  720, 1390  12.339 11:59:39 76.486380 -19.7 -17.6 -13.1    

11

N/A

5

N/A

Table 2 below: Comparison of daylight hours for Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and MSL when it is at the same solar longitudes as MPF for the 78 sols when MPF sent back data. Full MPF temperature data is given on this site at http://davidaroffman.com/custom3_59.html. Daylight hours are based on rough interpolations of Ls to the nearest degree shown on Table 2

λsun Latitude     Day Length = MPF Daylight   λsun Latitude     Day Length = MSL Daylight Differnce in 
 (0 for spring  (phi) δdegrees =  H = arccos((SIN(-.17) - SIN(lw)*SIN(δ))/(COS(lw)*COS(δ))) 2*1.027491*H/360 In Hours    (0 for spring  (phi) δdegrees =  H = arccos((SIN(-.17) - SIN(lw)*SIN(δ))/(COS(lw)*COS(δ))) 2*1.027491*H/360 In Hours dayight hours
in northern     arcsin((sin(25.19)*sin(λsun))     David's   in northern     arcsin((sin(25.19)*sin(λsun))     David's MPF-MSL
hemisphere)         Calculation   hemisphere)         Calculation  
MPF         (=E value * 24)   MSL         (=E value * 24)  
142.7 19.3 14.94677343 95.55145847 0.545434798 13.09043515   142.7 -4.59 14.94677343 88.94851431 0.507743 12.18583972 0.904595427
143 19.3 14.84146195 95.51169375 0.54520781 13.08498743   143 -4.59 14.84146195 88.95748228 0.507795 12.18706832 0.897919108
144 19.3 14.48780649 95.37846185 0.544447284 13.06673482   144 -4.59 14.48780649 88.98753908 0.507966 12.19118607 0.875548751
145 19.3 14.13021166 95.244214 0.543680959 13.04834302   145 -4.59 14.13021166 89.0178399 0.508139 12.19533724 0.853005781
146 19.3 13.76879101 95.10899435 0.542909087 13.0298181   146 -4.59 13.76879101 89.04837498 0.508313 12.19952051 0.830297582
147 19.3 13.40365796 94.97284592 0.542131913 13.01116592   147 -4.59 13.40365796 89.07913482 0.508489 12.20373458 0.807431348
148 19.3 13.0349258 94.83581052 0.541349677 12.99239224   148 -4.59 13.0349258 89.11011015 0.508666 12.20797816 0.784414081
149 19.3 12.66270765 94.69792886 0.540562609 12.97350262   149 -4.59 12.66270765 89.14129193 0.508844 12.21225002 0.761252592
150 19.3 12.28711642 94.55924049 0.539770936 12.95450248   150 -4.59 12.28711642 89.17267137 0.509023 12.21654897 0.737953506
151 19.3 11.90826481 94.41978383 0.538974878 12.93539708   151 -4.59 11.90826481 89.20423991 0.509203 12.22087382 0.714523259
152 19.3 11.52626529 94.27959622 0.538174648 12.91619155   152 -4.59 11.52626529 89.2359892 0.509384 12.22522344 0.690968109
153 19.3 11.14123007 94.1387139 0.537370452 12.89689084   153 -4.59 11.14123007 89.26791115 0.509567 12.22959671 0.667294132
154 19.3 10.75327109 93.99717207 0.536562491 12.87749978   154 -4.59 10.75327109 89.29999786 0.50975 12.23399255 0.643507231
155 19.3 10.3625 93.85500488 0.53575096 12.85802304   155 -4.59 10.3625 89.33224165 0.509934 12.23840991 0.619613135
156 19.3 9.969028179 93.71224548 0.534936049 12.83846518   156 -4.59 9.969028179 89.36463506 0.510119 12.24284777 0.59561741
157 19.3 9.572966702 93.56892604 0.534117941 12.81883059   157 -4.59 9.572966702 89.39717083 0.510304 12.24730513 0.571525458
158 19.3 9.17442634 93.42507779 0.533296814 12.79912355   158 -4.59 9.17442634 89.42984189 0.510491 12.25178102 0.547342523
159 19.3 8.773517562 93.28073102 0.532472842 12.77934821   159 -4.59 8.773517562 89.46264138 0.510678 12.25627451 0.5230737
160 19.3 8.370350533 93.13591517 0.531646192 12.75950861   160 -4.59 8.370350533 89.49556259 0.510866 12.26078468 0.498723935
161 19.3 7.965035114 92.99065879 0.530817028 12.73960867   161 -4.59 7.965035114 89.52859902 0.511055 12.26531063 0.474298034
162 19.3 7.557680868 92.84498966 0.529985507 12.71965217   162 -4.59 7.557680868 89.56174433 0.511244 12.2698515 0.449800671
163 19.3 7.148397059 92.69893474 0.529151784 12.69964282   163 -4.59 7.148397059 89.59499233 0.511434 12.27440643 0.425236386
164 19.3 6.737292666 92.55252027 0.528316009 12.67958421   164 -4.59 6.737292666 89.62833699 0.511624 12.27897461 0.4006096
165 19.3 6.324476385 92.40577178 0.527478327 12.65947985   165 -4.59 6.324476385 89.66177244 0.511815 12.28355523 0.375924616
166 19.3 5.910056641 92.25871412 0.52663888 12.63933312   166 -4.59 5.910056641 89.69529294 0.512006 12.2881475 0.351185626
167 19.3 5.494141598 92.11137154 0.525797807 12.61914737   167 -4.59 5.494141598 89.72889286 0.512198 12.29275065 0.326396721
168 19.3 5.076839171 91.96376769 0.524955242 12.59892582   168 -4.59 5.076839171 89.76256672 0.51239 12.29736393 0.301561891
169 19.3 4.658257039 91.81592565 0.524111318 12.57867164   169 -4.59 4.658257039 89.79630913 0.512583 12.3019866 0.27668504
170 19.3 4.23850266 91.66786802 0.523266163 12.55838792   170 -4.59 4.23850266 89.83011482 0.512776 12.30661793 0.251769983
171 19.3 3.817683284 91.51961692 0.522419904 12.5380777   171 -4.59 3.817683284 89.86397861 0.512969 12.31125723 0.226820463
172 19.3 3.395905971 91.37119405 0.521572664 12.51774394   172 -4.59 3.395905971 89.89789539 0.513163 12.31590379 0.201840149
173 19.3 2.973277609 91.22262072 0.520724565 12.49738957   173 -4.59 2.973277609 89.93186014 0.513357 12.32055692 0.176832649
174 19.3 2.549904928 91.07391788 0.519875728 12.47701746   174 -4.59 2.549904928 89.96586793 0.513551 12.32521595 0.151801514
175 19.3 2.125894518 90.92510622 0.519026268 12.45663044   175 -4.59 2.125894518 89.99991384 0.513745 12.3298802 0.126750245
176 19.3 1.701352853 90.77620612 0.518176304 12.43623131   176 -4.59 1.701352853 90.03399304 0.51394 12.33454901 0.101682302
177 19.3 1.276386306 90.62723778 0.517325951 12.41582282   177 -4.59 1.276386306 90.06810071 0.514134 12.33922172 0.076601107
178 19.3 0.851101167 90.4782212 0.516475322 12.39540773   178 -4.59 0.851101167 90.10223209 0.514329 12.34389767 0.051510057
179 19.3 0.425603669 90.32917627 0.515624531 12.37498875   179 -4.59 0.425603669 90.13638243 0.514524 12.34857623 0.026412525
180 19.3 2.98768E-15 90.18012276 0.514773692 12.3545686   180 -4.59 2.98768E-15 90.17054697 0.514719 12.35325673 0.001311872
181 19.3 -0.425603669 90.03108041 0.513922916 12.33414998   181 -4.59 -0.42560367 90.20472098 0.514914 12.35793853 -0.023788551
182 19.3 -0.851101167 89.88206894 0.513072316 12.31373559   182 -4.59 -0.85110117 90.23889972 0.515109 12.36262098 -0.048885389
183 19.3 -1.276386306 89.73310812 0.512222006 12.29332813   183 -4.59 -1.27638631 90.27307843 0.515304 12.36730342 -0.073975285
184 19.3 -1.701352853 89.58421778 0.511372097 12.27293033   184 -4.59 -1.70135285 90.30725231 0.515499 12.3719852 -0.099054863
185 19.3 -2.125894518 89.43541788 0.510522705 12.25254493   185 -4.59 -2.12589452 90.34141654 0.515694 12.37666566 -0.124120729

Figure 1: Adapted from http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/mars/LOPS_Pathfinder_temperatures.cgi#plot3. Unaveraged periodic temperature data from Mars Pathfinder. The data from all 3 sensors on Pathfinder’s 1 meter mast are shown.

       For most of the first year the MSL REMS Team reports did not include ground temperatures. Then they began to include them – right back to MSL Sol 10 at http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/mission/instruments/environsensors/rems/. However when I tried to make some sense out of the relationship between air and ground temperatures, I found the caveat that,

“Ground temperature will be recorded with a thermopile on Boom 1 that views the Martian surface to the side of the rover through a filter with a passband of 8 to 14 microns. The requirement is to measure ground brightness temperature over the range from 150 to 300 K with a resolution of 2 K and an accuracy of 10 K.28  

       An accuracy of 10K is almost worthless when looking at so many temperatures hovering around 273K (0° C). In fact, looking at the data from MSL Sols 10 through 652, the REMS Team offered maximum and minimum ground temperature for 584 sols. Fully 413 of the highs (over 70%) were between 283K (10° C) and 263 K (-10° C). See Figure 49. In spring of MSL Year 3 a maximum ground temperature of +24° C was recorded on Sol 1428 at Ls 202.

       If there was an accuracy in the range 1 K or better we could probably deduce something intelligent about air density by looking at the rate of heat loss from the surface up to the boom, but with an accuracy of only 10K on the ground and 5 K in the air, tit almos isn’t worth the effort to do the math. The decision to go with such inaccurate sensors is problematic. All that can be said is that for $2.5 billion, we got inaccurate temperature sensors, nonfunctioning wind sensors, a relative humidity sensor that did not merit inclusion of its data on any daily weather reports, and, of course, the same pressure sensor as that on Phoenix that caused its designer so much distress. We also got data that was often suspiciously revised or deleted by JPL after I criticized it to JPL public relations man Guy Webster.  

       Because JPL often changed published data, all too often after I have published criticism of that data, I often captured what they are saying via print-screen images. This is necessary here too. The 10K accuracy above is captured on Figures 50A and 50B in our Basic Report. See Figure 50B there which is also shown as Figure 3 below.

MARTIAN ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE. In the University of Arizona textbook entitled MARS (1992), it states on page 31 that the dry adiabatic lapse rate on Mars is 4.5K per kilometer. We will later compare that value with average high and low temperatures at Viking 1 (3,627 m below areoid) and MSL (4,400 m below areoid). If the published value is correct then we should see an average difference of (3,627/4,400* 4.5 m) = ~3.6K between the two landers. The colder temperatures should be at Viking 1 which is 773 meters higher. Table 7 is being built to display the relevant data for all. Right now it only offers data for MPF and MSL. MPF is 718 meters higher than MSL. However we should consider latitude, distance from the sun, and surface composition. Albedo will be added to the discussion if that data can be located. 

TROPICAL MARS LANDERS THAT HAD WEATHER INSTRUMENTATION AND THEIR ELEVATIONS ON LANDING

LANDER

DATE LANDED

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

HEIGHT OF AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR ABOVE GROUND FOR PURPOSES OF COMPARISON BETWEEN LANDERS

METERS BELOW MARS AREIOD

VIKING 1

JULY 20, 1976

22.48 N (Smith et al. states 22.2692 N)

49.97 W (Smith et al. states 311.8113 E)

1.6 m

-3,627 m

PATHFINDER

JULY 4, 1997

19.13 N (Smith et al. states 19.0949 N)

33.22 W (Smith et al. states 326.5092 E)

1.0 m

-3682 m

MARS SCIENCE LAB

 AUG 6, 2012

 4.59 S

  137.44 E (222.56W) 

1.5 m

-4,400 m

TABLE 4 - Pressure at landing elevations for Viking 1, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Science Laboratory based on a scale height of 10.8 and a pressure at Mars Areoid of 6.1 mbar. Atmospheric pressure decreases exponentially with altitude. In determining pressure for Earth, the formula for scale height is p = p0e-(h/h0) where p = atmospheric pressure (measured in bars on Earth), h = height (altitude), P0 = pressure at height h = 0 (surface pressure), and H0 = scale height.

 

Table 5: Viking 1 daylight calculations matched with observed high and low temperatures. There are generally two temperatures in column G cells (highs) because there are about 2 sols per Ls degree. For the same reason there are generally two temperatures in column H cells (lows). The Viking air temperature data source is from Tillman et al. at http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/mars/data/vl1/part1.html.

A B C D E F G

H

VL1 λsun (90 for summer in northern hemisphere, 180for autumn

Latitude

(phi)   

 δdegrees =  arcsin((sin(25.19)*sin(λsun))    H = arccos((SIN(-.17) - SIN(lw)*SIN(δ))/(COS(lw)*COS(δ)))    Day Length =

Daylight In Hours =E value * 24

High Temp C This Ls    

Low Temp C This Ls

    
2*1.027491*H/360
 
 
 
142.7 22.48 14.94677343 96.53385138 0.551042575 13.2250218  -25.08  -87.14
143 22.48 14.84146195 96.48679373 0.550773957 13.21857496

 -25.68

 -25.63

 -87.09

 -88.88

144 22.48 14.48780649 96.32913509 0.549873996 13.19697591

 -25.11

 -25.80

 -87.39

 -87.13

145 22.48 14.13021166 96.17028682 0.548967245 13.17521389

 -24.64

 -26.43

 -86.63

 -86.83

146 22.48 13.76879101 96.0103011 0.548054002 13.15329604

 -17.38

 -21.75

-86.98

-88.82

147 22.48 13.40365796 95.84922867 0.547134555 13.13122931

 -22.74

 -23.39

 -89.98

 -91.38

148 22.48 13.0349258 95.68711891 0.546209186 13.10902047

 -24.73

 -24.94

 -85.84

 -85.07

149

22.48 12.66270765 95.52401978 0.54527817 13.08667608

 -24.62

 -25.13

 -84.81

--84.54

150 22.48 12.28711642 95.35997789 0.544341772 13.06420254

 -24.40

 -24.79

 -84.47

 -85.10

151 22.48 11.90826481 95.19503847 0.543400252 13.04160604

 -25.95

 -24.46

 -84.72

-85.-07

152 22.48 11.52626529 95.02924547 0.542453858 13.01889259

 -25.83

 -24.63

 -84.63

-84.79

153 22.48 11.14123007 94.86264149 0.541502835 12.99606805

 -25.33

 -17.53

 -84.48

-84.94

154 22.48 10.75327109 94.69526789 0.540547419 12.97313807   N/A   N/A
155 22.48 10.3625 94.52716478 0.539587839 12.95010814   N/A   N/A
156 22.48 9.969028179 94.35837105 0.538624317 12.9269836   N/A   N/A
157 22.48 9.572966702 94.18892443 0.537657068 12.90376962   N/A   N/A
158 22.48 9.17442634 94.0188615 0.5366863 12.8804712   N/A   N/A
159 22.48 8.773517562 93.84821775 0.535712217 12.85709321   N/A   N/A
160 22.48 8.370350533 93.67702759 0.534735015 12.83364037   N/A   N/A
161 22.48 7.965035114 93.50532444 0.533754885 12.81011724   N/A   N/A
162 22.48 7.557680868 93.33314072 0.532772012 12.78652828   N/A   N/A
163 22.48 7.148397059 93.16050793 0.531786575 12.76287779

 -23.79

 

 -85.07

 -85.82

164 22.48 6.737292666 92.98745666 0.530798749 12.73916998

 -25.25

 -20.74

 -85.25

 -85.07

165 22.48 6.324476385 92.8140167 0.529808705 12.71540891

 -25.74

 -23.09

-84.94

-84.75

166 22.48 5.910056641 92.64021699 0.528816607 12.69159856

 -23.54

 -21.59

 

 -85.16

 -85.02

 

167 22.48 5.494141598 92.46608575 0.527822616 12.66774279

 -24.46

 -25.30

 -85.53

 -85.38

168 22.48 5.076839171 92.2916505 0.52682689 12.64384537

 -25.33

 -23.58

 -85.46

 -85.82

169 22.48 4.658257039 92.11693808 0.525829582 12.61990998  -25.09

-85.77

-84.89

170 22.48 4.23850266 91.94197475 0.524830842 12.59594021

 -24.70

 -24.32

 -84.31

 -84.78

171 22.48 3.817683284 91.76678619 0.523830816 12.57193959

 -26.38

 -24.14

 -86.02

-85.85

172 22.48 3.395905971 91.59139759 0.522829648 12.54791156

 -25.0

 

 -85.81

 -85.72

173 22.48 2.973277609 91.41583366 0.52182748 12.52385951

 -26.28

 -26.28

 -85.67

-85.99

174 22.48 2.549904928 91.24011872 0.520824449 12.49978678

 -25.15

 -25.24

-82.14

-85.86

175 22.48 2.125894518 91.06427672 0.519820693 12.47569663

 -25.22

 -25.31

 -86.37

 -85.98

176 22.48 1.701352853 90.88833129 0.518816347 12.45159232

  -25.47

 

 -85.32

 -85.47

177 22.48 1.276386306 90.71230582 0.517811543 12.42747704  -25.55  -87.49
178 22.48 0.851101167 90.53622348 0.516806416 12.40335397

 -24.38

 -23.40

 -88.15

 -89.57

179 22.48 0.425603669 90.36010728 0.515801094 12.37922627

 -25.40

 -24.38

 -86.44

 -82.30

180 22.48 2.98768E-15 90.18398013 0.514795711 12.35509706

 -23.01

 

 -85.77

 -82.30

181 22.48 -0.425603669 90.00786487 0.513790395 12.33096948

 -25.90

 -25.30

 -86.17

 

182 22.48 -0.851101167 89.83178433 0.512785277 12.30684666

 -20.58

 -26.13

 -84.92

 -85.29

183 22.48 -1.276386306 89.65576141 0.511780489 12.28273173  -24.77

 -88.03

 -85.18

184 22.48 -1.701352853 89.47981906 0.51077616 12.25862784

 -23.68

 -26.43

 -81.92

 -86.98

185 22.48 -2.125894518 89.30398042 0.509772423 12.23453815

 -25.20

 -26.00

 -83.69

 -84.52

 

Figure 2 below: If the accuracy of MSL ground temperatures is only 10K, this creates a huge problem when it comes to understanding heat loss and air density.

Table 6.

MPF Solar Longitude (Ls)

 

1997 EARTH
DATE FOR MPF

 

MPF Temperatures Celsius

(altitude = -3.682 km)

 

MSL Year 1 and MSL Year 2 Temperatures Celsius

(altitude = -4.4 km)

Viking 1 Temperatures Celsius

(altitude = -3.627 km)

    1.0 meters 0.5 meters 0.25 meters

 MSL Low

Air Temp

MSL Low

Ground Temp

MSL Ground

High Temp

MSL Air

High Temp

  VL-1 Air Temp High

VL-1 Air Temp Low

142.7 July 4 -0.8 -3.9 0.1

-80

-75

-80

-78

-4

-5

-13

-10

-25.08 -87.14 
143.2 July 5

Low N/A

Low N/A

Low N/A

-79 -79    
 

-87.09

 

  143.2  July 5
-15.9 -13.0 -9.6    

-4

-5

-8

-11

-25.68

 

 
 
143.7 July 6
-76.0 -76.4 -77.8

-77

-78

-81

-74

       -88.88 
143.7  July 6
-15.1 -12.5 -8.9    

0

-7

-14

-9

 

 -25.63

 

 
 
144.2 July 7
-74.8 -75.4 -76.6

-80

-78

-83

-74

     

 -87.39

 

 
144.2  July 7
-14.6 -11.1 -7.8    

-3

-6

-13

-14

-25.11

 

 
 
144.7 July 8
-74.5 -75.0 -76.2

-79

-77

-79

-74

      -87.13 
144.7  July 8
-20.2 -15.6 -12.4    

1

-7

 

-6

-15

-25.80  
145.2 July 9
-75.0 -75.6 -77.2

-79

-76

 

-87

-75

      -86.63
145.2  July 9
-13.7 -11.6 -8.4    

1

-6

-10

-11

-24.64  
145.7 July 10
-71.2 -71.7 -76.6

-77

-77

-83

-73

      -86.83
145.7  July 10
High N/A High N/A High N/A    

1

-7

-14

-12

-26.43

 
146.2 July 11
Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A 

-78

-74

-84

-72

      -86.98
146.2 July 11
-14.0 -11.9 -8.7    

1

-2

-12

-15

-17.38  
146.7 July 12
-75.7 -76.2 -77.7

-76

-78

-85

-79

      -88.82
146.7  July 12
-14.8 -12.5 -9.0    

1

-1

-10

-14

-21.75
 
147.2 July 13
-71.7 -71.9 -75.4

-77

-76

-78

-78

      -89.98
147.2  July 13
High N/A  High N/A       

4

0

-11

-19

-22.74
 
147.7  July 14
Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-78

-83

-79

      -91.38
147.7 July 14
-15.3 -13.3 -10.8    

4

0

-10

-11

-23.39
 
148.2 July 15
-75.5 -76.0 -77.7

-78

-76

-81

-80

      -85.84
148.2  July 15
-16.3 -14.9 -12.4    

0

0

-8

-18

-24.94
 
148.7 July 16
-71.7 -72.1 -76.3

-78

-77

-82

-78

      -85.07
149.2 

July 17

-16.8 -15.2 -12.8    

7

0

-4

-12

-23.94
 
149.2 July 17
-75.6 -76.0 -77.1

-77

-77

-80

-77

      -84.81
149.7  July 18
-16.3 -14.4 -11.4    

0

1

 

-7

-10

-25.13
 
149.7 July 18
-76.0 -76.9 -78.2

-76

-75

-81

-76

      -85.54
150.2  July 19
-15.1 -13.5 -10.2    

0

1

-7

-12

-24.40
 
150.2 July 19
-77.2 -78.3 -80.2

-78

-76

-75

-79

      -84.47
150.8  July 20
         

6

1

-4

-13

-24.79
 
150.8 July 20      

-84

-75

-91

-78

      -85.10
151.3  July 21          

-8

0

-4

-18

-25.95
 
151.3 July 21      

-79

-77

-85

-78

      -84.72
151.8  July 22 -13.0 -10.8 -7.5    

4

2

-7

-18

-24.46   
151.8 July 22 Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-79

-76

-80

-77

     
-85.07  
152.3  July 23 -13.1 -10.7 -7.5    

6

3

-15

-15

-25.33
 
152.3 July 23 -70.0 -70.4 -74.3

-78

-76

 -83

-77

      -84.79
152.8  July 24 -16.0 -13.2 -10.3    

7

1

-1

-9

-24.63
 
152.8 July 24
-76.6 -77.1 -78.9

-78

-80

-96

-77

      -84.48
153.3
July 25 -13.2 -11.0 -7.4    

8

-4

-16

-7

-25.33
 
153.3 July 25 -76.9 -77.6 -79.6

-80

-74

-94

-71

      -84.95
153.9
July 26 -14.9 -13.6 -10.8    

7

-6

-17

-8

-17.53
 
153.9 July 26      

-80

-75

-91

-72

      N/A
154.4 July 27 -13.3 -11.2 -7.7    

10

-3

-12

-14

N/A   
154.4 July 27 -77.2 -78.3 -80.1

-78

-75

-79

-74

      N/A 
  154.9 July 28 -15.2 -12.0 -7.8    

0

9

-12

-16

N/A   
154.9 July 28 -78.3 -79.2 -81.2

-78

-75

-79

-73

      N/A 
155.4 July 29 N/A N/A N/A    

0

 

-12 N/A   
155.4 July 29 -13.0 -10.9 -7.6

-77

-75

-79

-77

      N/A 
155.9 July 30          

-1

9

-17

-16

N/A   
155.9 July 30 -77.3 -78.0 -79.7

-77

-76

-80

-85

      N/A 
156.5 July 31 N/A N/A N/A    

1

11

-13

-15

N/A   
156.5 July 31      

-76

-73

-80

-84

      N/A 
157 Aug 1 -13.4 -9.6 -6.1    

1

10

-15

-9

N/A   
157 Aug 1  -74.0 -76.0 -77.7

-79

-73

-80

-79

      N/A 
157.5
Aug 2 -13.5 -11.6 -7.5    

2

4

-17

-9

N/A   
157.5 Aug 2
-75.5 -76.1 -77.3

-77

-72

-80

-79

      N/A 
    158 Aug 3 -17.1 -12.8 -9.2    

2

4

-16

-12

N/A   
158 Aug 3 Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-79

-73

-80

-78

      N/A 
158.6 Aug 4 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

4

-7

-6

N/A   
158.6 Aug 4 Low N/A Low N/A  Low N/A

-75

-76

-82

-75

   
  N/A 
159.1 Aug 5 High N/A High N/A High N/A     3 -5
N/A   
159.1
Aug 5       -75
-78
      N/A 
159.6 Aug 6 -13.2 -10.9 -7.6    

6

4

 

-9

-11

N/A   
159.6 Aug 6 Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A  -77 -85       N/A 
160.1 Aug 7 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

3

-2

-5

N/A   
160.1 Aug 7 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-78

-75

      N/A 
160.7 Aug 8 -13.1 -10.8 -6.9    

2

3

-4

-5

N/A   
160.7 Aug 8 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-74

-78

-77

      N/A 
161.2
Aug 9 -13.7 -10.8 -7.7    

3

3

-2

-16

N/A   
161.2 Aug 9 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-72

-78

-79

      N/A 
161.7 Aug 10 -10.3 -9.8 -6.5    

8

2

-5

-16

N/A   
161.7 Aug 10 Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-76

-74

-77

-78

      N/A 
162.3 Aug 11 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

6

2

-6

-13

N/A   
162.3 Aug 11 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

-76

-77

-76

      -85.82 (Ls 163.36)

163

No MPF Weather Data Intil Ls 162.8 @ MPF Sol 50.

        -75 -77 1 -16    
168.2 Aug 22
-12.5 -9.9 -6.7    

 

4

 

-1

-25.3
 
168.2 Aug 22 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-76

      -85.46
168.7 Aug 23 -11.6 -9.0 -5.7    

4

3

-8

-2

-25.33
 
168.7 Aug 23 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-75

-80

-74

      -85.82
 169.3 Aug 24 -15.0 -11.9 -7.9    

6

1

-4

-4

-23.58
 
 169.3 Aug 24 Low N/A  Low N/A  Low N/A 

-76

-74

-75

-69

       -85.77
 169.8 Aug 25          

2

0

-2

-3

-25.09
 
 169.8 Aug 25      

-75

-74

-75

-70

      -84.89
 170.4 Aug 26 -12.5 -11.4 -7.8    

2

-5

-1

-5

-24.70
 
170.4 Aug 26 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-75

-75

-74

      -84.78 
170.9
Aug 27          

11

5

-1

-2

-24.32    
170.9 Aug 27 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-73

-86

-75

      -86.02
(Ls 171.159)
 171.5 Aug 28 -13.0 -11.9 -8.2    

9

6

-2

1

-26.38
 
 171.5 Aug 28 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-74

-76

-78

-77

      -85.85
172 Aug 29 -12.2 -10.5 -6.8    

8

6

-4

1

-24.14 (Ls 171.904)

 
172 Aug 29       -76
-78
      -85.81
172.6 Aug 30 -11.0 -10.4 -7.4    

8

9

-4

-7

-25.01
 
 172.6 Aug 30      

-77

-77

-83

-77

      -85.72
 173.1 Aug 31 -10.7 -10.4 7.3    

9

10

-3

-7

-26.28
 
 173.1 Aug 31 Low N/A Low N/A  Low N/A 

-76

-74

-81

-77

      -85.67
 173.7 Sep 1 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

9

10

-2

-8

-26.60
 
 173.7 Sep 1  Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-74

-83

-76

      -85.99
 174.2 Sep 2 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

8

4

 

-2

-11

 
-25.15
 
 174.2 Sep 2 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-69

      -85.86
 174.8 Sep 3 -15.1 -12.7 -8.8

 

 

 

8

10

-1

3

-25.44
 
174.8 Sep 3 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-73

-78

-76

      -86.37
 175.3 Sep 4 -14.5        

8

7

-1

-2

-25.22
 
175.3 Sep 4 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-81

-74

      -85.98
 175.9 Sep 5 -12.3 -10.1 -6.6    

8

10

-2

-3

-25.31
 
 175.9 Sep 5 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-75

-78

-74

      -85.32
 176.5 Sep 6 -12.9 -11.8 -7.9    

9

10

-6

-1

-25.47
 
 176.5 Sep 6 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

-75

-78

-74

      -84.81
 177 Sep 7 -16.7 -13.2 -9.6    

12

17

-5

2

-25.55
 
 177 Sep 7 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-74

-84

-77

      -86.73
 177.6 Sep 8 High N/A High N/A High N/A    

14

18

-9

4

-25.35
 
 177.6 Sep 8 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-73

-82

-81

      -88.15
178.1 Sep 9 -15.2 -13.3 -9.4    

8

N/A

0

N/A

-24.38
 
 178.1 Sep 9 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

-77

-77

-77

      -89.57
178.7 Sep 10 High N/A High N/A High N/A  

 

N/A 

N/A N/A 
-23.40
 
178.7 Sep 10 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

N/A

-88

-77

N/A

      -86.44
179.3 Sep 11 -10.3 -9.4 -6.0    

5

N/A

1

N/A

-25.40
 
179.3 Sep 11 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-76

N/A
      -82.30
 179.8 Sep 12 -14.8 -10.8 -7.4    

5

N/A

1

N/A

-24.38
 
179.9
Sep 12 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-73

N/A

-78

N/A

      -85.77
180.4 Sep 13 -15.2 -14.0 -10.1    

16

N/A

-11

N/A

-23.01
 
180.4 Sep 13 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

N/A

N/A       -82.30
 180.9 Sep 14 -13.7 -12.7 -9.6    

15

N/A

 

-12

N/A

-27.30
 
180.9 Sep 14 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-75

N/A

-86

N/A

      -86.17
 181.5 Sep 15 -20 -18.5 -15.1    

18

N/A

-11

N/A

-25.30
 
181.5
Sep 15 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-77

N/A

-87

N/A

      -84.92
 182.1 Sep 16 -13.0 -12.5 -8.9    

18

N/A

-10

N/A

-24.48
 
182.1
Sep 16 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-87

N/A

      -85.29
 182.6 Sep 17 -20.0 -18.5 -15.1    

19

N/A

12

N/A

-26.13
 
182.6
Sep 17 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-76

N/A

-79

N/A

      -88.03
 183.2 Sep 18 -13.4 -11.2 -7.7    

8

N/A

2

N/A

-24.77
 
183.2
Sep 18 Low N/A Low N/A Low N/A

-73

N/A

-75

N/A

      -85.18
 183.8 Sep 19 -16.7  -15.2  -11.2      N/A

2

N/A

-23.68
 
183.8
Sep 19      

-77

Low N/A

-82

Low N/A

      -81.92

 

Figure 3 - MSL Ground Temperature Sensor

Table 7. High Air Temperatures for Mars Pathfinder at 1 meter and MSL at 1.5 meters above ground.

 MPF Solar Longitude (Ls)

MPF Temperatures Celsius (altitude = -3.682 km) 

MSL Year 1 and MSL Year 2 Temperatures Celsius (altitude = -4.4 km)

 

MPF @ 1.0 meters

MSL Year 1 Air High Temp @ 1.5 m

MSL Year 2 High

142.7

-0.8

-13

-10

143.2 

-15.9

-8

-11

143.7 

-15.1

-14

-9

144.2 

-14.6

-13

-14

144.7 

-20.2

-6

-15 

145.2 

-13.7

-10

-11 

145.7 

High N/A

-14

-12 

146.2

-14.0

-12

-15 

146.7 

-14.8

-10

-14 

147.2 

High N/A 

-11

-19 

147.7

-15.3

-10

-11

148.2 

-16.3

-8

-18 

149.2 

-16.8

-4

-12 

149.7 

-16.3

-7

-10 

150.2 

-15.1

-7

-12 

150.8 

 

-4

-13 

151.3 

 

-4

-18 

151.8 

-13.0

-7

-18 

152.3 

-13.1

-15

-15 

152.8 

-16.0

-1

-9 

153.3

-13.2

-16

-7 

153.9

-14.9

-17

-8

154.4

-13.3

-12

-14 

  154.9

-15.2

-12

-16 

155.4

-13.0

-12

 

155.9

 

-17

-16 

156.5

N/A

-13

-15 

157

-13.4

-15

-9 

157.5

-13.5

-17

-9 

    158

-17.1

-16

-12 

158

Low N/A 

 

 

158.6

High N/A

-7

-6 

159.1

High N/A

-5

-5 

159.6

-13.2

-9

-11 

160.1

High N/A

-2

 -5

160.7

-13.1

-4

-5 

161.2

-13.7

-2

-16 

161.7

-10.3

-5

-16 

162.3

High N/A

-6

-13 

163 No MPF Weather Data until Ls 162.8.

 

 

 

168.2

12.5

-1

 

168.7

-11.6

-8

-2 

 169.3

-15.0

-4

 -4

 169.8

 

-2

-3 

 170.4

-12.5

-1

-5 

170.9

 

-1

-2 

 171.5

-13.0

-2

172

-12.2

-4

172.6

-11.0

-4

-7 

 173.1

-10.7

-3

-7 

 173.7

High N/A

-2

-8 

 174.2

High N/A

-2

-11 

 174.8

-15.1

-1

 175.3

-14.5

-1

-2 

 175.9

-12.3

-2

-3 

 176.5

-12.9

-6

 -1

 177

-16.7

-5

 177.6

High N/A

-9

178.1

-15.2

0

N/A 

178.7

High N/A

N/A

 

179.3

-10.3

1

N/A

 179.8

-14.8

1

N/A 

180.4

-15.2

-11

N/A 

 180.9

-13.7

-12

N/A 

 181.5

-13.0

18

-11

 182.1

-13.0

-10

N/A 

 182.6

-20.0

12

N/A 

 183.2

-13.4

2

N/A 

 183.8

-16.7 

2

N/A

The Tables in this section are still under construction. The first table summarizes 38 sols when there was high temperature data for MPF and MSL (years 1 and 2). It corresponds to the days when there was also data for Viking 1. No data was included for the day of MPF landing because the sol was not complete and because the lander was likely heated by the landing (the high temperature recorded was -0.8 C).

LS MPF HIGH °C

MSL YR 1    HIGH °C

MSL YR 2  HIGH °C CHANGE °C MPF DOWN TO MSL YEAR 1
CHANGE °C MPF DOWN TO MSL YEAR 2
143.2  -15.9 -8 -11 7.9 4.9
143.7  -15.1 -14 -9 1.1 6.1
144.2  -14.6 -13 -14 1.6 0.6
144.7  -20.2 -6 -15 14.2 5.2
145.2  -13.7 -10 -11 3.7 2.76
146.2 -14 -12 -15 2 -1
146.7  -14.8 -10 -14 4.8 0.8
147.7 -15.3 -10 -11 5.3 4.3
148.2  -16.3 -8 -18 8.3 -1.7
149.2  -16.8 -4 -12 12.8 4.8
149.7  -16.3 -7 -10 9.3 6.3
150.2  -15.1 -7 -12 8.1 3.1
151.3  -7.5 -4 -18 3.5 -10.5
151.8  -13 -7 -18 6 -5
152.3  -13.1 -15 -15 -1.9 -1.9
152.8  -16 -1 -9 15 7
153.3 -13.2 -16 -7 -2.8 6.2
153.9 -14.9 -17 -8 -2.1 6.9
154.4 -13.3 -12 -14 1.3 -0.7
154.9 -15.2 -12 -16 3.2 -0.8
155.4 -13 -12 -15
1 -2
157 -13.4 -15 -9 -1.6 4.4
158 -17.1 -16 -12 1.1 5.1
159.6 -13.2 -9 -11 4.2 2.2
160.7 -13.1 -4 -5 9.1 8.1
161.2 -13.7 -2 -16 11.7 -2.3
161.7 -10.3 -5 -16 5.3 -5.7
168.7 -11.6 -8 -2 3.6 9.6
170.4 -12.5 -1 -5 11.5 7.5
170.9 -6.8 -1 -2 5.8 4.8
171.5 -13 -2 1 11 14
172 -12.2 -4 1 8.2 13.2
172.6 -11 -4 -7 7 4
173.1 -10.7 -3 -7 7.7 3.7
174.8 -15.1 -1 3 14.1 18.1
175.3 -14.5 -1 -2 13.5 12.5
175.9 -12.3 -2 -3 10.3 9.3
177 -16.7 -5 2 11.7 18.7
total -524.5 -288 -362 236.5 162.5
MEAN TEMP °C
-13.80263158 -7.578947368 -9.52631579 6.223684211
4.27631579
       

ADIABATIC RATE OF CHANGE PER KM =

6.224K/0.718KM = 8.6685

ADIABATIC RATE OF CHANGE PER KM =

4.27631/0.718KM= 5.9558716

Expected change °C  over 718m due to -4.5K/km Adiabatic Lapse Rate. MPF @ -3,682m and MSL @ -4,400 m.
       3.231   3.231
Variance from Expected Lapse Rate of 4.5
      4.1685°C 1.4559°C

 

The lapse rate is defined as the rate at which atmospheric temperature decreases with an increase in altitude. The adiabatic process for air has a characteristic temperature-pressure curve, so the process determines the lapse rate. In the troposphere up to 12 km (39,000 feet) when the air contains little water, this lapse rate is known as the dry adiabatic lapse rate: the rate of temperature decrease is 9.8 °C/km (5.38 °F per 1,000 ft) (3.0 °C/1,000 ft). The reverse occurs for a sinking parcel of air.

The moist adiabatic lapse rate varies strongly with temperature. A typical value is around 5 °C/km (2.7 °F/1,000 ft) (1.5 °C/1,000 ft). 

The following Table compares high air temperatures seen by MSL and Viking 1, but only for the same sols as were shown on the Table above where there was data for MPF.

LS VIKING 1   HIGH °C MSL YR 1          HIGH °C MSL YR 2       HIGH °C CHANGE °C VL-1 DOWN TO MSL YEAR 1 CHANGE °VL-1 DOWN TO MSL YEAR 2
143.2  -25.68 -8 -11 17.68 14.68
143.7  -26.63 -14 -9 12.63 17.63
144.2  -25.11 -13 -14 12.11 11.11
144.7  -25.8 -6 -15 19.8 10.8
145.2  -24.67 -10 -11 14.67 13.67
146.2 -17.38 -12 -15 5.38 2.38
146.7  -21.75 -10 -14 11.75 7.75
147.7 -23.39 -10 -11 13.39 12.39
148.2  -24.94 -8 -18 16.94 6.94
149.2  -23.94 -4 -12 19.94 11.94
149.7  -25.13 -7 -10 18.13 15.13
150.2  -24.4 -7 -12 17.4 12.4
151.3  -25.95 -4 -18 21.95 7.95
151.8  -24.46 -7 -18 17.46 6.46
152.3  -25.33 -15 -15 10.33 10.33
152.8  -24.63 -1 -9 23.63 15.63
153.3 -25.44 -16 -7 9.44 18.44
153.9 -17.53 -17 -8 0.53 9.53
JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 154.4       0 0
JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 154.9       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 155.4       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 157       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 158       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 159.6       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 160.7       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 161.2       0 0
 JOINT DATA NOT AVAILABLE 161.7       0 0
168.7 -25.33 -8 -2 17.33 23.33
170.4 -24.7 -1 -5 23.7 19.7
170.9 -24.32 -1 -2 23.32 22.32
171.5 -26.38 -2 1 24.38 27.38
172 -24.14 -4 1 20.14 25.14
172.6 -25.01 -4 -7 21.01 18.01
173.1 -26.28 -3 -7 23.28 19.28
174.8 -25.44 -1 3 24.44 28.44
175.3 -25.22 -1 -2 24.22 23.22
175.9 -25.31 -2 -3 23.31 22.31
177 -25.77 -5 2 20.77 27.77
TOTALS -710.06 -201 -248 509.06 462.06
MEAN TEMP °C FOR 29 SOLS -24.48482759 -6.93103448 -8.551724138    
TEMP DIFFERENCE OVER 773  M       17.5537931 15.93310345
OBSERVED LAPSE RATE EXTRAPOLATED TO 1 KM       22.70865861 20.61203551
TEXT BOOK ADIABATIC RATE (4.5 K/KM)       4.5 4.5

       The observed lapse rates above seem quite different than those posted for the MPF-MSLcomparison. So we will next compare MPF with Viking 1. This comparison is less problematic than those in the two tables just given because MPF and Viking 1 were at somewhat similar latitudes and altitudes.

MPF Solar Longitude (Ls) MPF Temperatures Celsius (altitude = -3.682 km)  Viking 1 Temperatures Celsius (altitude = -3.627 km)
  1.0 meters   VL-1 Air Temp High
142.7 -0.8 -25.08
143.2 -15.9 -25.68
143.7 -15.1 -25.63
144.2 -14.6 -25.11
144.7  -13.7 -24.64
145.2  -14 -17.38
146.2 -14.8 -21.75
146.7  -15.3 -23.39
147.7 -16.3 -24.94
148.2  -16.8 -23.94
149.2  -16.3 -25.13
149.7  -15.1 -24.4
150.2  -13 -24.46 
151.8  -13.1 -25.33
152.3  -16 -24.63
152.8  -13.2 -25.33
153.3 -14.9 -17.53
153.9 -12.5 -25.3
168.2 -11.6 -25.33
168.7 -15 -23.58
 169.8 -12.5 -24.7
170.9 -13 -26.38
 171.5 -11 -25.01
172.6 -10.7 -26.28
 173.1 -15.1 -25.44
 174.8 -14.5 -25.22
 175.3 -12.3 -25.31
 175.9 -12.9 -25.47
 176.5 -16.7 -25.55
 177 -15.2 -24.38
178.1 -10.3 -25.4
179.3 -14.8 -24.38
 179.8 -15.2 -23.01
180.4 -13.7 -27.3
 180.9 -20 -25.3
 181.5 -13 -24.48
 182.1 -20 -26.13
 182.6 -13.4 -24.77
 183.2 -16.7  -23.68
 TOTALS -532.3 -932.29
 MEAN TEMPERATURES
-13.64871795 -23.90487179

 Viking 1 temperatures were about 10.2 °C colder than MPF although it was only 55 meters higher than Mars Pathfinder!