Home Page of Dr. David A. Roffman (PhD, Physics)

HOME PAGE Web Site Contents Mars Report Contents Mars Report Abstract CV for Dr. David Roffman Diplomas PhD Thesis PhD Thesis Powerpoint Mars PowerPoint MSL Weather Reports MSL Weather Fall Yr 3 MSL Yr. 3 Summer Weather MSL Yr. 3 Spring Weather MSL Ultraviolet Desai, EDL, Parachutes & ExoMars Mars winter vs. summer temps Sea at Utopia Planitia, Mars Tree Stump at MSL? Spherical life on Mars? Mars Report Abstract, 1-1.2 Mars Report Sec.2-2.1 Report 2.2-2.4 Report 2.5-2.5.2 Report 2.5.3-2.7 Report 3-4.1.2 Report 5 to 6 Report  7-7.2.1 Report 8-9 Report 10-11 Report  12-12.2 Report 12.3-12.5 Report 12.6 Report 13-14 Report 14.1 Report 14.2-14.3 Report 14.4-14.6.2 Report 14.6.3-14.6.4 Report 15-19 Report References Report Afterword Rebuttal of REMS Report Running water on Mars MSL Year 0 Weather MSL Yr 2 Winter-Spring Weather MSL Yr 2 Summer Weather MSL Yr 2 Fall Weather MSL Yr 2-3 Winter Weather Adiabatics MSL Hi Temps MSL Low Temps Organic Chem found by MSL Oxygen in Mars Air MSL Day length & Temp Warm winter ground temps 155-Mile High Mars Plume Radiation Diurnal Air Temp Variation Mars Temps Fahrenheit Beagle found JPL/NASA Pressure Mistakes Enter MarsCorrect Sol 370, 1160 & 1161 Histories Mars-Radio-Show JPL Fudges Pressure Curves MSL Temp. ∆ Mast to Ground High & Low Pressures Normalized Mars soil 2% water Moving rock Mars MAVEN MSL Relative Humidity Claim Ashima Concedes Original MSL Weather Record Old MSL Weather Record MSL Summer Weather Pressure Estimate REMS Wind MSL Pressures REMS Reports Curiosity Geology CERN-2013-pics Daylight Math MSL Errors P1 MSL Errors P2 MSL-Chute-Flap MSL daylight Ashima Sols 15 to 111 Ashima Sol 112 to 226 Ashima Sol 227 on New Ashima Sols 270+ MSL Summer to Sol 316 Weather Forecast Wind Booms MSL Credibility MSL Temp. Swings MSL Temperatures Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) VL2 - MSL Ls Comparson Ashima MIT Mars GCM Dust Storm Nonsense Mars Slideshow Moving Sand & Martian Wind 3 DEC12 Press Conf. MSL Press Conf. 15NOV2012 Sol Numbering MSL Pressure Graph to Ls 218.8 MSL Sky Color Mars Sky Color DATA DEBATE! Zubrin's Letter Phoenix Vaisala Vaisala Pressure Sensors Phoenix &MSL Flawed MSL REMS Viking pressure sensors failed MSL landing site Mars Landings Phobos Grunt Martian Air Supersaturation Martian Secrets? Mars & CH4 Mars and MSL Time Viking Pressure Audit Links Mars Society 2008 Quant Finance Frontiers Home Front. Preface Frontiers Ch. 1 Frontiers Ch. 2 Antimatter Lightning Frontiers Ch. 3 Frontiers Ch. 4 Frontiers Ch. 5 Frontiers Ch. 6 Frontiers Ch. 7 Frontiers Ch. 8 Frontiers Ch. 9 Frontiers Ch 10 Frontiers Ch 11 Frontiers Ch 12 Frontiers Ch 13 Frontiers Ch 14 Frontiers Ch 15 Frontiers Ch 16 Frontiers Ch 17 Frontiers Ch 18 Frontiers Ch 19 Frontiers Ch 20 Frontiers Ch 21 Frontiers Ch 22 World Tour Spring-Break -13 Other Travels Asteroid Impact? ExoMars data Unit Issues Viking Pressures Tavis CADs Landing Long Scale Heights LS of Max/Min Pressures Tavis Report Tavis Failures Lander Altitude Martian Trees? Code Experiment Gedanken Report Mars Nuke? Martian Flares Mach Numbers MOLA (altitude) Original Mars Report Mariner 9 & Pressure Mars  Temps MSL Time MPF Pressure Blog Debates Spring Pendulum Plasma Model Reporting Errors Orbital Parameters Anderson Localization P. 1 Anderson Localization P. 2 Moving rock old Navigating Mars Mars Report Section Links Mars Report Figure Link Gillespie Lake rock outcrop MSL Sol 200 Anomaly Sol 1300&1301 Anomalies Gilbert Levin & Labeled Release Brine on Mars Ceres Lights Yr 1 Table 1 amfivan Missing data Mitchell Report Old Mars Report All MPF Temps ExoMars fails Did Spirit find past life? MSL ground temps go haywire Seasonal Pressure Altitude Calculations

Been There, Done That on Earth, What Planet's Next? But nobody is going to walk on Mars if NASA and other space agencies ignore the data on this web site (don't worry, they're not). Updated 7/25/2017.

Animated gif Mars spinning


INTRODUCTION TO THE DAVIDAROFFMAN.COM SITE. This site deals with Mars and Breakthrough Propulsion Physics. To quickly view topics, click on TABLE OF CONTENTS. For my goals, please read this page. With respect to Mars, I am now certain that I have found definitive proof that the landers sent to Mars with meteorological instrumentation were all flawed by pressure transducers that clogged with dust while landing. This means that they were all in error about the very low pressures seen there. For more about this, and the implications for future Mars missions, see Mars Pressure Abstract and Links. I presented my initial findings at the 13th International Mars Society Convention in Dayton, Ohio on August 5, 2010. My father and I made two updating presentations about our findings to the 14th International Mars Society Convention held in Dallas, Texas on August 4, 2011, but the paper delivered there has been continually enhanced with many huge discoveries made since then, and by about 5 years of data from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS). It landed on Mars on August 6, 2012.  The latest version of our report is at MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA.   It was updated July 25, 2017 to include 1,760 NASA weather reports for more than 2.6 Martian years since Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. Note: Earlier versions of this report went under the titles of Martian Air Pressures Are far Higher Than NASA Asserts and also Higher Than Advertised Martian Air Pressure. A PowerPoint version is found at Mars Correct? Mars is West!. This presentation was updated on May 12, 2017.

WHO READS THIS SITE?  We did not start to look up the IP addresses of those who were reading this site until the fall of 2014. When we did we were surprised to see that readers fell into the following categories: (1) NASA; (2) military personnel from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Finland (likely associated the Finnish Meteorological Institute that created the pressure sensor for Mars Phoenix and MSL); (3) The Kremlin and other Russian sites (which are apparently associated with their space program); (4) European, Chinese and Japanese sites which are associated with universities interested in spaceflight. Immediately before and very much after the ESA's ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli crash there was a surge in readers from the Thales-Alena Space-Italy Group which was responsible for the entry and descent of ExoMars 2016; (5) university students looking for help with computer programming or basic physics, and (6) others who appear to be just the curious. I don't maintain an active blog on this site. My father does on his MarsCorrect.com site. The Mars-related articles found here are usually carried on his site too, so unless you want to make a job offer to me, please contact him via his blog there or at his e-mail address at marscorrect@gmail.com. Note: now that I have my PhD in physics I'm open to all job offers that are intellectually and financially rewarding. My first preference is to return to Florida, but I wil consider other locations - hopefully in the Southeastern part of the U.S.

         This site serves mostly as a place where I can maintain the data found, and like Wikipedia, make the data available to anyone in public or government domains who has an interest in science. For NASA the goal is to help them correct a serious shortfall in data analysis and to ensure that they provide accurate data to their U.S. competitor - SpaceX.

MarsCorrect.Com Portal: The Mars-related articles on this DavidARoffman.Com site often require update in light of new findings from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover. I do my best to keep this material current, but I don’t always have the time required to update the Mars articles. As such, since the end of March 2014 my father has been updating these particular articles and posting them on his site at MarsCorrect.Com. See The Table of Contents there and its links. Where differences exist between what is written there and what is found there, use the data at the newer site, however please be aware that my father may at times make some assertions about data interpretation that I have not yet seen, or do not agree with. Questions about information found there should be sent to him at MarsCorrect@gmail.com

Below: 14th International Mars Society Convention in Dallas, Texas (2011). Left to right: Pat Duggins, National Public Radio of Alabama; CNN Space Correspondent John Zarrella; David Roffman, and Barry Roffman

MARS RADIO INTERVIEW. My father was interviewed for 90 minutes on the Curtner and Kerr radio (Mars Exposed!) show on April 30, 2013. There he discussed our findings about Mars having far higher air pressure than our Government will admit to. You can hear a recording of the show HERE. You can also get a quick overview of our findings critiquing NASA HERE. Note: On May 17, 2013 the Public Relations Director for JPL (Guy Webster) sent my father a thank you for corrections made by me and by my father to NASA errors published pertaining to winds and day length on Mars. Our outstanding dispute with NASA remains over pressure there.

MARS CORRECT: CRITIQUE OF ALL NASA MARS WEATHER DATA Note: Earlier versions of this report went under the titles of Martian Air Pressures Are far Higher Than NASA Asserts and also Higher Than Advertised Martian Air Pressure. This 972-page report was published on June 29, 2017.     


Mars Society Presentation PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - Part 1 by David. Roffman. Posted September 9, 2012.


     Most recent PowerPoint: MARS CORRECT? MARS IS WET! Published January 30, 2017.



By Barry S. Roffman (BarrySRoffman@GMail.Com)

Technical Advice by David A. Roffman (DavidARoffman.GMail.Com)

(June 30, 2017)

ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NASA is seriously understating Martian air pressure. Our 8-year study critiques 1,738 Sols (over 2.6 Martian years) of highly problematic MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REM) weather data, and offers an in depth audit of over 8,311 hourly Viking 1 and 2 weather reports. We discuss analysis of technical papers, NASA documents, and personal interviews of transducer designers. We troubleshoot pressures based on radio occultation/spectroscopy, and the small pressure ranges that could be measured by Viking (18 mbar), Pathfinder and Phoenix (12 mbar), and MSL (11.5 mbar). For MSL there was a mean pressure of 11.49 mbar measured on its Sol 370. When we made an issue of it with JPL, it was revised to 8.65 mbar. The REMS Team then published pressures of 11.77 mbar (for Sol 1,160) and 12 mbar (for Sol 1,161). Again we made an issue of it again it, and they revised the figures to 8.98 and 8.97 mbar respectively. When they asserted a pressure 1154Pa for Sol 1301, we challenged it and they revised it to 752 Pa. In fact we demonstrate that JPL/REMS weather data was frequently revised after they studied critiques in working versions of this report and on our websites at http://marscorrect.com and http://davidaroffman.com.

Vikings and MSL showed consistent timing of daily pressure spikes. We link this to how gas pressure in a sealed container would vary with Absolute temperature, to heating by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and to dust clots at air access tubes and dust filters. Pathfinder, Phoenix and MSL wind measurement failures are disclosed. Phoenix and MSL pressure transducer design problems are highlighted with respect to confusion about dust filter location, and lack of information about nearby heat sources due to International Traffic and Arms Regulations (ITAR). NASA could not replicate dust devils at 10 mbar. Rapidly filled MER Spirit tracks required wind speeds of 80 mph at the assumed low pressures. These winds were never recorded on Mars. Nor could NASA explain drifting Barchan sand dunes. Based on the above and dust devils on Arsia Mons to altitudes of 17 km above areoid (Martian equivalent of sea level), spiral storms with 10 km eye-walls above Arsia Mons, dust storm opacity, snow at Phoenix, excessive aero braking, liquid water running on the surface in numerous locations at Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and stratus clouds 13 km above areoid, we argue for an average pressure at areoid of ~511 mbar rather than the accepted 6.1 mbar. This pressure grows to 1,050 mbar in the Hellas Basin.

PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman.  Posted August 18, 2011.


ABSTRACT FOR PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman (November 6, 2012): After a cursory review of the Viking Project Data it became apparent that an extensive audit was imperative. The Viking Project Data did not seem to explain weather phenomena (spiral clouds over Arsia Mons, dust devils, etc.) clearly seen on Mars. A general discussion of the problems is offered in the Basic Report by David Roffman. The data audit results are presented in seven Annexes. The Viking Project data divides every Martian day into 25 time-bins (hours), each ~59 minutes long. Annex A (Viking 1 sols 1 to 350) and Annex B (Viking 2 sols 156 to 361) emphasize how pressures change during morning time-bins that correspond to 0630 to 0830. A simple formula, Pressure predicted = (6.51 mbar*255.77 K)/Temperature K measured, was often correct for 0730. Annex C examines how often the pressure sensor did not work (stuck or no pressures) between Viking 2 sols 639 and 799. Annex D examines the percent differences between hourly predictions and reported pressures for Viking 1 from sols 1 to 350. Annex E focuses on predictions and reported pressures for the 0.3 (0730) and .34 (0830) time-bins. Annex F maps out the best and worst prediction times each day, clearly proving the influence of the RTG heaters on hourly pressure reports. Annex G shows what went wrong in the transducer selection and testing process. These Annexes provide hard evidence that the Tavis pressure transducers used for the Vikings (and Pathfinder) likely jammed with dust during the landing process. The meaning of this is that it is doubtful that they ever measured ambient pressure conditions of Mars.  There is evidence that all subsequent attempts to measure pressure were colored by the reported Viking results. Problems with Phoenix pressures based on a Vaisala transducer are discussed in the Basic Report. Annex I discusses the the initial pressure results in from the MSL with a focus on its sols 15 to 87 (Ls 158.8 to 199.8) which occurred between August 22 and November 3, 2012.



Annex Abstract Overview of data in the Annexes A-1
ANNEX A VIKING 1 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES and Mars Time-Bin Clock. http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf A-2 toA-59
ANNEX A Appendix 1 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 to .34 time-bins. Sols 1-116.http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20A%203%20SEP%202013.pdf A-3 to A-22
Appendix 2 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 134-199. A-23 toA-34
Appendix 3 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 200-219. A-35 to A-38
Appendix 4 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 220-304 A-39 to    A-50
Appendix 5 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 305-334 A-51 to    A-55
Appendix 6 VL-1 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 335-350 A-56 to    A-59
ANNEX B VIKING 2 MORNING PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGEShttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20B%209%20September%202013.pdf B-1 to B-39
Appendix 1 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 156-175 B-2 to B-5
Appendix 2 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 176-199. B-6 to B-10
Appendix 3 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 201-260. B-11 to     B-20
Appendix 4 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 261-290. B-21 to     B-26
Appendix 5 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 291-305. B-27 to     B-30
Appendix 6 VL-2 pressures of .26 to .3 time-bins & .3 and .34 time-bins. Sols 306-361 B-31 to     B-39
ANNEX C VIKING 2 STUCK PRESSURE GAUGEhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20C%209%20September%202013.pdf C-1 to C-54
Appendix 1 Viking 1 Sols 1 to 199 D-3 to D-94
Appendix 2 Viking 1 Sols 200 to 350 D-95 to    D-171
ANNEX E Measured vs. Predicted Pressure Percent Differences for Viking-1 Time-bins 0.3 and 0.34 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20E%209%20September%202013.pdf E-1 to E-14
ANNEX F Percent Difference Experimental Summaryhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20F%20%2010%20September%202013.pdf F-1 to F-18
Appendix 1 Percent Difference Flow Chart for Viking 1 Sols 1 to 116 & 200 to 350 F-5 to F-16
Appendix 2 Histogram with temperatures at successful predictions per time-bins F-17 to     F-18
ANNEX G Tavis Transducer Specifications and Test Resultshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20G%2010%20September%202013.pdf G-1 to G-13
 ANNEX H Calibration Effort for the Mars Pathfinder Tavis Pressure Transducer and IMP Windsock Experimenthttp://marscorrect.com/Annex%20H%20%209%20September%202013.pdf H-1 to H-43
ANNEX I Pressures Reported by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS).http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20I%209%20September%202013.pdf I-1 to I-28
Appendix 1 Print Screen Record of Original REMS Team and Ashima Research MSL Weather Reports I-12 to I-28
ANNEX J Concessions by Ashima Research and How to Correctly Calculate Daylight Hours for MSLhttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20J%20%209%20September%202013.pdf J- 1to J-19
ANNEX K REMS Team and Ashima Research Weather Reports from Sol 15 to Sol 299.http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%2010%20SEP%202013.pdf K-1 to K-34
ANNEX L How Martian Day Length  Varies with Ls and Latitudehttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20L%20July%2014%202014.pdf L-1 to L-10
ANNEX M One Year of MSL Weather Reports http://marscorrect.com/Annex%20M%20JULY%2014%202014.pdf M-1 to M-38
ANNEX N Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 151 to Ls 270 (late winter to end of spring), Sols 670 to 864  http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20N.pdf N-1 to N-13
ANNEX O Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 270 to Ls 0  (summer), Sols 865 to 1,020 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20O.pdf O-1 to O-11
ANNEX P Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Ls 0 to Ls 90  (autumn), Sols 1019 to 1,213 http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20P.pdf P-1 to P-15
ANNEX Q Weather Reports for MSL Year 2 Winter until the End of MSL Year 2 (Ls 90 to Ls 150, Sols 1,213 to 1,338) http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20Q.pdf Q-1 to Q-14
ANNEX R Comparison of Ultraviolet Radiation and Pressures at Gale Crater, Mars for MSL Years 1 and 2http://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20R.pdf R-1 to R-28
ANNEX S Two Martian Years of MSL High Air and Ground Temperatureshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20S.pdf S-1 to S-41
ANNEX T Two Martian Years of MSL Low Air and Ground Temperatureshttp://marscorrect.com/ANNEX%20T%20TO.pdf T-1 to T-64



PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - Part 1 by David. Roffman. Posted September 9, 2012. 


PowerPoint Summary of HIGHER THAN ADVERTISED MARTIAN AIR PRESSURE - PART 2 by Barry S. Roffman.  Posted August 18, 2011.




MY NOTES FOLLOW FOR THE TEXTBOOK FRONTIERS  IN PROPULSION SCIENCE (Edited by Marc G. Millis and Eric M. Davis; published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.). The book, hereafter referred to only as The Textbook, provides up to date information for engineering physics as it relates to spaceship propulsion. Originally I posted questions (highlighted in red) to pursue at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University where I earned a B.S. in space physics. However, it only took me 5 semesters to earn my B.S., and much of that time was spent researching the density of the Martian atmosphere. This means that some of the questions remain to be addressed as I pursue a PhD in physics.

       My notes are broken up into sections that match the chapters of The Textbook, with links to the chapter notes in the table below. Comments and/or corrections to my notes and questions by the AIAA textbook authors or other knowledgeable authorities are most welcome and will be published in the appropriate sections unless they are of a private or potentially classified nature.

Preface for Frontiers in Propulsion Science
Chapter  1: Recent History of Breakthrough Propulsion Studies
Chapter  2: Limits of Interstellar Flight Technology
Chapter  3: Prerequisites for Space Drive Science
Chapter  4: Review of Gravity Control Within Newtonian and General Relativistic Physics
Chapter  5: Gravitational Experiments with Superconductors: History and Lessons
Chapter  6: Nonviable Mechanical “Antigravity” Devices
Chapter  7: Null Findings of Yamishita Electrogravitical Patent
Chapter  8: Force Characterization of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters in Air
Chapter  9: Experimental Findings of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters for Various Gasses and Pressures
Chapter  10: Propulsive Implication of Photon Momentum in Media
Chapter  11: Experimental Results of the Woodward Effect on a Micro-Newton Thrust Balance
Chapter  12: Thrusting Against the Quantum Vacuum
Chapter  13: Inertial Mass from Stochastic Electrodynamics
Chapter  14: Relativistic Limits of Spaceflight
Chapter  15: Faster-than-Light Approaches in General Relativity
Chapter  16: Faster-than-Light Implications of Quantum Entanglement and Nonlocality
Chapter  17: Comparative Space Power Baselines
Chapter  18: On Extracting Energy from the Quantum Vacuum
Chapter  19: Investigating Sonoluminescence as a Means of  Energy Harvesting
Chapter 20: Null Tests of “Free Energy” Claims
Chapter  21: General Relativity Computational Tools and Conventions for Propulsion
Chapter 22: Prioritizing Pioneering Research
Text Typos to fix for Second Edition